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(Sch.: 1. 76'; b. 19')
The second Nautilus, the first ship designed for the Coast and Geodetic Survey, was completed in 1838. Until the spring of 1844 she carried out surveys for the Commerce Department in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic Coast, operating under Mr. F. R. Hossler (1838-1843) and Dr. A. D. Bache (1843 1844). In April 1844, although still a Coast and Geodetie Survey shiP, she was put under the command of Lt. G. M. Bache, USN, to undertake surveys for the Navy. Three years later she was taken over by the Navy for temporary duties during the War with Mexico, as light draft vessels were needed for operations off the Gulf coast. Such vessels with their ability to ride over the sandbars frequently foun1 at the entrances to harbors on that coast, and to patrol between those harbors close to shore, facilitated combined operations and the Navy's important duty of providing General Taylor with a secure line of eommunicatiorls in the Gulf.
Nautilus was returned to the Coast and Geodetie Survey in July 1848 and performed survey duties for that agency until 1859.
Founded in 1986, Nautilus, Inc. is a global leader in innovative home fitness solutions, headquartered in Vancouver, Washington and incorporated in the State of Washington in January 1993. The company completed its initial public offering in May 1999 and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol NLS.
Nautilus, Inc. is known for its popular brands, including Bowflex®, Nautilus®, Schwinn®, and JRNY®, which offer a wide range of quality fitness offerings like indoor bikes, treadmills, ellipticals, home gyms, and adjustable all-in-one free weights systems, many that are integrated with its innovative JRNY digital fitness platform.
Products are sold through two distinct distribution channels, Direct and Retail, which we consider to be separate business segments, and a portion of our revenue is derived from the licensing of our brands and intellectual property.
Poised for growth, Nautilus, Inc. is well-positioned in large, growing markets with favorable demographic trends and is committed to continue strengthening its omni-channel distribution strategy, digital innovation, product development, and a supply chain that supports growth and best-in-class service levels.
The Brief Life of the Radar Pickets, Part II
Radar-picket submarines served only briefly in the U.S. Navy, but their story is a good one, as described by Edward C. Whitman, Senior Editor of Undersea Warfare magazine, in a Winter/Spring 2002-edition article entitled “Cold War Curiosities: U.S. Radar Picket Submarines.” Today’s installment is part two of two.
“To the MIGRAINE units were added two new-construction boats, USS Sailfish (SSR-572) and USS Salmon (SSR-573), designed from the keel up as radar pickets and laid down at the Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Navy Yard in December 1953 and March 1954, respectively. With a length of 350 feet and a surface displacement of over 2,300 tons, these were among the largest conventional submarines ever built by the United States. Because it was assumed that they would spend most of their time on the surface, Sailfish and Salmon were given substantial reserve buoyancy and hull forms optimized for surface performance. On each, the BPS-2 air-search radars could be rotated into a fore-and-aft position for retraction into the large sail fairwater, but just as in the MIGRAINE III boats, the BPS-3 height finder was mounted on a pedestal abaft the sail. The two new SSRs were both commissioned in mid-1956, giving a total of 12 radar pickets, but since the earliest of the MIGRAINE boats were reaching the end of their service lives, that total would soon drop.
“Eventually, seven SSRs (Requin, Tigrone, Burrfish, Pompon, Ray, Redfin, and Sailfish) were assigned to the Atlantic Fleet and operated nominally in the Caribbean and North Atlantic, with regular participation in NATO exercises and periodic deployments to the Mediterranean as part of the U.S. 6 th Fleet. The five remaining (Spinax, Rasher, Raton, Rock, and Salmon) went to the Pacific Fleet and operated off western North America and in WESTPAC deployments to 7th Fleet. Although the SSRs became key participants in fleet air defense as early-warning pickets and CAP controllers 50 to 100 nautical miles in front of typical Cold War carrier battlegroups, their overall effectiveness was frequently hampered by their relatively modest surface speeds, particularly when task-group course changes required rapid repositioning. Even Sailfish and Salmon, the fastest of the type, could only make 20 knots on the surface, little better than the older fleet boats. Thus, the accelerating development of submarine nuclear power—and the debut of USS Nautilus (SSN-571) in early 1955—appeared to offer a welcome solution to this operational problem.
“Consequently, the Navy laid down what was intended as the first of a series of nuclear-powered radar picket submarines in May 1956. This was USS Triton (SSRN-586), which at 448 feet long and nearly 6,000 tons surface displacement, emerged as the longest U.S. submarine ever built until the appearance of the USS Ohio (SSBN-726) class in the early 1980s. Triton was unique among U.S. submarines in carrying a propulsion plant with two nuclear reactors, each an S4G rated at 22,000 horsepower. She was also the last U.S. submarine to have a conning tower inside the sail, twin screws, and an after torpedo room. Like Sailfish and Salmon, she was optimized for high surface speed—with a knife-like bow and ample reserve buoyancy—and reportedly, she exceeded 30 knots on her trials. Although like the most recent SSRs, Triton mounted her air-search radar on the sail where it could be stowed within the fairwater for submergence, her newer AN/SPS-26 was scanned electronically in elevation, so no separate height-finding radar was required. With three deck levels beneath the sail, there was ample room for dedicated air-control facilities just below the control room/attack center.
“Triton was commissioned in November 1959 with the decorated World War II submarine skipper—and later distinguished naval author—CAPT Edward L. Beach, in command. For Triton’s maiden voyage/shakedown cruise, Beach was ordered to attempt the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe, and the ship departed New London on 16 February 1960, not to return until 10 May, 84 days and 41,500 nautical miles later. This unprecedented success brought significant international prestige to the nation and the Navy, and by maintaining a steady speed of 21 knots for nearly three months, Triton firmly established the endurance and reliability of nuclear propulsion. In recognition, President Dwight D. Eisenhower awarded the ship and her crew a Presidential Unit Citation after their return.
“Triton joined 2 nd Fleet in August 1960, and soon thereafter, she deployed to European waters to assume her role as a radar picket in a series of NATO exercises. And then the bottom dropped out of her primary mission.
“With the successful introduction of carrier-borne early warning aircraft in 1958—first the Grumman E-1B Tracer, and then the successor E-2 Hawkeye in 1964—the requirement for surface radar pickets soon faded, and the SSR/SSRN mission was quickly phased out. Thus, in March 1961, Triton was reclassified as an attack submarine (SSN) and overhauled at Portsmouth between 1962 and 1964 to refuel her reactors and convert her for a new role. Even though she was too large to be effective as an attack boat, Triton—now SSN-586—served gamely at Norfolk as flagship of COMSUBLANT until June 1967, but nonetheless she had become an expensive white elephant. Although plans were floated to use her large, surviving CIC space as an alternative national emergency command post, these never came to fruition, and when a planned 1967 overhaul was cancelled because of defense cutbacks, her days were numbered. Triton was subsequently inactivated and then decommissioned in May 1969—the first nuclear-powered submarine to be withdrawn from service. She is now in storage at the inactive ship facility in Bremerton, Washington, awaiting final disposal by the Nuclear Ship and Submarine Recycling Program.
“Similarly, by early 1961, all of the conventionally-powered SSRs had ceased radar-picket operations. The first to be withdrawn were the MIGRAINE I boats, Burrfish and Tigrone, temporarily decommissioned in late 1956 and 1957, respectively the last were Sailfish and Salmon. Although two of the MIGRAINE III boats were put out of service and scrapped almost immediately, the remainder were reclassified as conventional attack boats (SS) or as auxiliary general submarines (AGSS) for non-combat duties, and they survived for ‘twilight careers’ that lasted as late as 1978. The longest-lived was Sailfish, which was decommissioned in September of that year and which still remains laid up and afloat at Bremerton. Several of the others served as Naval Reserve training hulks after decommission, and five were eventually sunk as targets, most recently Salmon in 1993. Tigrone was re-commissioned in March 1962 and, as an AGSS, played a major part in developmental testing for several passive sonar systems before she was finally put out of service in 1975. Similarly, Redfin—as AGSS-272—became a test platform for the pioneering inertial navigation systems required by the Polaris SLBM program. She was then decommissioned in May 1967 and scrapped four years later. Burrfish had an interesting aftermath: The Canadian Navy leased the boat in 1961, renamed her HMCS Grilse (SS-71), and used her as a ‘live’ target for anti-submarine warfare training. She was returned to the U.S. Navy in 1969 and sunk as a target that same year.
“Ironically, one of the first two SSRs survives today as a memorial. Requin was re-classified in 1959 as SS-481—then AGSS-481—and she remained in active service until December 1968. From 1972 to 1986, the ship was a tourist attraction in Tampa, Florida, but financial troubles led to abandonment by her operators. Subsequently acquired and lovingly restored by the Carnegie Science Center, Requin has been displayed in the Ohio River near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania since October, 1990, and she remains one of the most popular exhibits in the Three-Rivers area.”
Nautilus II Sch - History
CHAPTER II: ST. IGNATIUS (AD 116)
When our Lord ascended into Heaven, He left the government of His Church to the Apostles. We are told that during the forty days between His rising from the grave and His ascension, He gave commandments unto the Apostles, and spoke of the things belonging to the kingdom of God (Acts i. 2f). Thus they knew what they were to do when their Master should be no longer with them and one of the first things which they did, even without waiting until His promise of sending the Holy Ghost should be fulfilled, was to choose St. Matthias into the place which had been left empty by the fall of the traitor Judas (Acts i. 15-26).
After this we find that they appointed other persons to help them in their work. First, they appointed the deacons to take care of the poor and to assist in other services. Then they appointed presbyters (or elders), to undertake the charge of congregations. Afterwards, we find St. Paul sending Timothy to Ephesus, and Titus into the island of Crete, with power to "ordain elders in every city" (Tit. 1. 5), and to govern all the churches within a large country. Thus, then, three kinds (or orders) of ministers of the Church are mentioned in the Acts and Epistles. The deacons are lowest, the presbyters, or elders, are next and, above these, there is a higher order, made of of the Apostles themselves, with such persons as Timothy and Tltus, who had to look after a great number of presbyters and deacons, and were also the chief spiritual pastors (or shepherds) of the people who were under the care of these presbyters and deacons. In the New Testament, the name of "bishops," (which means "overseers") is sometimes given to the Apostles and other clergy of the highest order, and sometimes to the presbyters, but after a time it was given only to the highest order, and when the Apostles were dead, the bishops had the chief government of the Church. It has since been found convenient that some bishops should be placed above others, and should be called by higher titles, such as archbishops and patriarchs, but these all belong to the same order of bishops just as in a parish, although the rector and the curate have different titles, and one of them is above the other, they are both most commonly presbyters (or, as we now say, priests), and so they both belong to the same "order" in the ministry.
One of the most famous among the early bishops was St. Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, the place where the disciples were first called Christians (Acts xi. 26). Antioch was the chief city of Syria, and was so large that it had more than two hundred thousand inhabitants. St. Peter himself is said to have been its bishop for some years and, although this is perhaps a mistake, it is worth remembering, because we shall find by-and-by that much was said about the bishops of Antioch being St. Peter's successors, as well as the bishops of Rome.
Ignatius had known St. John, and was made bishop of Antioch about thirty years before the Apostle's death. He had governed his church for forty years or more, when the Emperor Trajan came to Antioch. In the Roman history, Trajan is described as one of the best among the emperors but he did not treat the Christians well. He seems never to have thought that the Gospel could possibly be true, and thus he did not take the trouble to inquire what the Christians really believed or did. They were obliged in those days to hold their worship in secret, and mostly by night, or very early in the morning, because it would not have been safe to meet openly and hence, the heathens, who did not know what was done at their meetings, were tempted to fancy all manner of shocking things, such as that the Christians practised magic that they worshipped the head of an ass that they offered children in sacrifice and that they ate human flesh! It is not likely that the Emperor Trajan believed such foolish tales as these and, when he DID make some inquiry about the ways of the Christians, he heard nothing but what was good of them. But still he might think that there was some mischief behind and he might fear lest the secret meetings of the Christians should have something to do with plots against his government and so, as I have said, he was no friend to them.
When Trajan came to Antioch, St. Ignatius was carried before him. The emperor asked what evil spirit possessed him, so that he not only broke the laws by refusing to serve the gods of Rome, but persuaded others to do the same. Ignatius answered, that he was not possessed by any evil spirit that he was a servant of Christ that by His help he defeated the malice of evil spirits and that he bore his God and Saviour within his heart. After some more questions and answers, the emperor ordered that he should be carried in chains to Rome, and there should be devoured by wild beasts. When Ignatius heard this terrible sentence, he was so far from being frightened, that he burst forth into thankfulness and rejoicing, because he was allowed to suffer for his Saviour, and for the deliverance of his people.
It was a long and toilsome journey, over land and sea, from Antioch to Rome, and an old man, such as Ignatius, was ill able to bear it, especially as winter was coming on. He was to be chained, too, and the soldiers who had the charge of him behaved very rudely and cruelly to him. And no doubt the emperor thought that, by sending so venerable a bishop in this way to suffer so fearful and so disgraceful a death (to which only the very lowest wretches were usually sentenced), he should terrify other Christians into forsaking their faith. But instead of this, the courage and the patience with which St Ignatius bore his sufferings gave the Christians fresh spirit to endure whatever might come on them.
The news that the holy bishop of Antioch was to be carried to Rome soon spread, and at many places on the way the bishops, clergy, and people flocked together, that they might see him, and pray and talk with him, and receive his blessing. And when he could find time, he wrote letters to various churches, exhorting them to stand fast in the faith, to be at peace among themselves, to obey the bishops who were set over them, and to advance in all holy living. One of the letters was written to the Church at Rome, and was sent on by some persons who were travelling by a shorter way. St. Ignatius begs, in this letter, that the Romans will not try to save him from death. "I am the wheat of God," he says, "let me be ground by the teeth of beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of Christ. Rather do ye encourage the beasts, that they may become my tomb, and may leave nothing of my body, so that, when dead, I may not be troublesome to any one." He even said that, if the lions should hang back, he will himself provoke them to attack him. It should not be right for ordinary people to speak in this way, and the Church has always disapproved of those who threw themselves in the way of persecution. But a holy man who had served God for so many years as Ignatius, might well speak in a way which could not become ordinary Christians. When he was called to die for his people and for the troth of Christ, he might even take it as a token of God's favour, and might long for his deliverance from the troubles and the trials of this world, as St. Paul said of himself, that he "had a desire to depart, and to be with Christ".
He reached Rome just in time for some games which were to take place a little before Christmas for the Romans were cruel enough to amuse themselves with setting wild beasts to tear and devour men, in vast places called amphitheatres, at their public games. When the Christians of Rome heard that Ignatius was near the city, great numbers of them went out to meet him, and they said that they would try to persuade the people in the amphitheatre to see that he might not be put to death. But he entreated, as he had before done in in his letter, that they would do nothing to hinder him from glorifying God by his death and he knelt down with them, and prayed that they might continue in faith and love, and that the persecution might soon come to an end. As it was the last day of the games, and they were nearly over, he was then hurried into the amphitheatre (called the Coliseum), which was so large that tens of thousands of people might look on. And in this place (of which the ruins are still to be seen), St Ignatius was torn to death by wild beasts, so that only a few of his larger bones were left, which the Christians took up and conveyed to his own city of Antioch.
USS Nautilus: World’s First Nuclear Submarine Made History
Naval Submarine Base New London, Connecticut is known as “The Home of the Submarine Force.” The facility was the first United States Navy’s submarine base and it remains the primary home to Commander Submarine Group 2 (SUBGRU 2) and the Naval Submarine School. All officers and most enlisted submarines are typically stationed at the base, and likely at some point all of them take time to visit a most remarkable submarine that is now maintained as a National Historic Landmark.
Meet USS Nautilus (SSN-571), the world’s first operational nuclear-powered submarine as well as the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole. While the fourth U.S. Navy vessel and a second submarine to bear the name, SSN-571 was also far larger than the Navy’s diesel-electric submarines that preceded it.
A Technological Wonder
Stretching 319 feet with a displacement of 3,180 tons, USS Nautilus was constructed under the direction of U.S. Navy Captain Hyman G. Rickover, a Russian-born engineer who joined the U.S. atomic program after World War II. In 1947, Rickover was put in charge of the Navy’s nuclear propulsion program and set out to develop the first atomic submarine – delivering Nautilus ahead of schedule.
GROTON, Conn. (May 13, 2009) Being escorted by a tug, Virginia-class attack submarine USS Hawaii (SSN 776) makes itÕs way down the Thames River past the historic ship Nautilus as it departs Naval Submarine Base New London for its new homeport at Naval Station Pearl Harbor. Commissioned May 5, 2007, Hawaii is the third Virginia-class attack submarine constructed and the first submarine to be named after the Aloha state. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Peter D. Blair/Released)
During the boat’s sea trials, under the command of Captain Eugene Parks “Dennis” Wilkinson, Nautilus established the capabilities and early tactics of a nuclear-powered submarine. In drills, Nautilus was able to successfully attack surface ships without being detected and was able to just as successfully evade most pursuers.
The boat could remain submerged for almost unlimited periods and could travel far greater distances than any diesel-electric submarine of the era, while its uranium-powered nuclear reactor allowed the submarine to travel underwater at speeds in excess of 20 knots. In short order, the USS Nautilus shattered many submerged speed and distance records. In July 1958, SSN-571 departed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii under top-secret orders to conduct “Operation Sunshine,” the first crossing of the North Pole by any naval vessel. On August 3, 1958, the boat’s second Commanding Officer, Commander William R. Anderson, made the announcement to the crew, “for the world, our country, and the Navy – the North Pole.”
In a career lasting twenty-five years, Nautilus traveled almost 500,000 miles and took part in a variety of developmental testing programs, while continuing to serve alongside many more modern nuclear-powered submarines. In the spring of 1979, the boat set out for a final voyage to Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, and was decommissioned the following year. The boat was saved from the scrapyard, however, and was designated a National Historic Landmark and converted into a museum ship, and towed back to Groton, Connecticut.
An aerial port quarter view of the nuclear-powered attack submarine ex-USS NAUTILUS (SSN 571). The NAUTILUS is being towed to Groton, Connecticut, where it will become a museum.
Steven A. White
Steven Angelo White was born on September 18, 1928 in Los Angeles, California, growing up primarily in Tujunga, California. After graduating early from Verdugo Hills High School in 1946, he received a scholarship to Occidental College. After a brief stay at Occidental, he would transfer to the University of Southern California, under a full Naval ROTC scholarship.
After completing his education, White attempted to enlist during World War II, but was turned down due to his age. In 1948, he joined the United States Navy Reserve as an enlisted seaman. Through his ROTC scholarship at USC, he began his career as a naval officer. While at USC, he earned his BA in International Relations, while simultaneously working towards his Masters in Political Science. He would also begin work on a Law Degree, which he would not complete due to his progressing naval career and family.
Following his graduation from USC in the summer of 1952, White was commissioned as an ensign. His first assignment as a commissioned officer was aboard USS Manchester, during the ship’s service in the Korean War. He would serve aboard her through the conclusion of the war on July 27, 1953.
At the end of that year, he was accepted into the submarine program as a newly promoted LTJG. The White family would travel to Groton, CT where Steve would attend submarine training. After successful completion of his training, he received orders to USS TANG (SS-563), upon which he would serve two years, including a lengthy trip to Japan. Upon his return, White seriously contemplated resigning from the Navy to continue his pursuit of a Law Degree. Before he could decide he had a chance encounter with “Father of the Nuclear Navy”— ADM Hyman G. Rickover, whose Naval nuclear program was just gaining steam.
White’s first encounter with Rickover, which consisted of attendance to a lecture given by Rickover in Pearl Harbor in 1956, inspired Steve to apply for one of the very few openings in Rickover’s program. He survived the near-legendary and grueling interview process and, accepted to the program, once again relocated his family to New London to attend the Naval Nuclear Power School in the Naval Submarine Base from June 1956 through December 1956. Following graduation, the Whites moved to Idaho where Steve could continue his training at the nuclear prototype reactor in Arco.
Steve’s first assignment post-training was aboard USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Admiral Rickover’s first nuclear submarine. From the clear May day in 1957 when Steve first climbed aboard Nautilus until he left the ship in mid-1960, Steve’s experience and love for that ship grew at an exponential rate. From September 1957 through May 1958, Nautilus made her first attempt to break into the “no man’s land” of the Arctic. Her introduction to the forbidding waters of the Arctic was certainly eventful. A first foray—part of a training rendezvous with the diesel sub USS Trigger at the southern end of the icepack, to be followed by participation in “Operation Strikeback”, a series of NATO exercises in the North Atlantic—demonstrated to both officers and crew the intensity of the challenge posed by the comparatively uncharted and unpredictable waters under the icepack. Their initial attempt to make a “run” for the Pole during their training with Trigger in early September was unsuccessful, owing to the unpredictability of the underwater ice. Nautilus successfully completed a transpolar crossing during “Operation Sunshine”, piercing the pole on 3 August, 1958. This achievement was announced by the legendary message: “Nautilus Ninety North.” After this amazing achievement, Nautilus would undergo her first overhaul, during which time White would serve as PR representatives for Nautilus and the naval nuclear power program.
After leaving his beloved Nautilus, Steve would go to Bettis Atomic Power Lab in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania. He would then go on to serve as Engineer of the USS Ethan Allen, which had the distinct honor of carrying out the only ordered complete missile test with an armed warhead. Shortly after White was promoted to Executive Officer of Ethan Allen, upon which he would experience the 1962 tension s of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
By 1969, White was ordered to serve as Commander of Division 102, supervising four submarines. This assignment was followed by working for Rickover’s Naval Reactors, where he received the billet of Commander of the navy’s second Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) Submarine Squadron in Rota, Spain. He would be promoted to Rear Admiral at the conclusion of his tour to Spain, where he would serve as commander of Submarine Group Two in Groton, CT.
At his next assignment at the Office of Naval Material (NAVMAT), White would reform the branch and establish a cohesive group of material personnel that would function seamlessly and efficiently. This assignment was followed by a trip to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (OP-02) in 1978, where he would be in charge of Submarine Warfare. In May 1980, White was promoted to Admiral three stars and sent to serve as COMSUBLANT.
During his tenure at COMSUBLANT, he created the Tactical Readiness Evaluation program (TRE), reconstructed war plans for interactions with the Soviet Union, and transformed the program for negotiating the pace of operation and calculating “home port” time for officers and crew.
In May 1983, White received his fourth star and a final naval assignment as Chief of NAVMAT.
ADM White retired from the Navy in July 1985, after which he worked as a part-time contractor and advisor for various companies. He would accept a position at the nuclear power division of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). After retiring from the TVA in 1988, he would work for Lockheed Martin Corporation and EBASCO as a contractor.
ADM White was married to his wife, Mary Anne (Landreau) for seventy years. Together they had seven children, thirty-five grandchildren, seven grandchildren-in-law, and eleven great-grandchildren.
Drugs, substances, and certain chemicals used to make drugs are classified into five (5) distinct categories or schedules depending upon the drug’s acceptable medical use and the drug’s abuse or dependency potential. The abuse rate is a determinate factor in the scheduling of the drug for example, Schedule I drugs have a high potential for abuse and the potential to create severe psychological and/or physical dependence. As the drug schedule changes-- Schedule II, Schedule III, etc., so does the abuse potential-- Schedule V drugs represents the least potential for abuse. A Listing of drugs and their schedule are located at Controlled Substance Act (CSA) Scheduling or CSA Scheduling by Alphabetical Order. These lists describes the basic or parent chemical and do not necessarily describe the salts, isomers and salts of isomers, esters, ethers and derivatives which may also be classified as controlled substances. These lists are intended as general references and are not comprehensive listings of all controlled substances.
Please note that a substance need not be listed as a controlled substance to be treated as a Schedule I substance for criminal prosecution. A controlled substance analogue is a substance which is intended for human consumption and is structurally or pharmacologically substantially similar to or is represented as being similar to a Schedule I or Schedule II substance and is not an approved medication in the United States. (See 21 U.S.C. §802(32)(A) for the definition of a controlled substance analogue and 21 U.S.C. §813 for the schedule.)
Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are:
heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote
Schedule II drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. These drugs are also considered dangerous. Some examples of Schedule II drugs are:
Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin), cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (OxyContin), fentanyl, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin
Schedule III drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence. Schedule III drugs abuse potential is less than Schedule I and Schedule II drugs but more than Schedule IV. Some examples of Schedule III drugs are:
Products containing less than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with codeine), ketamine, anabolic steroids, testosterone
Schedule IV drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence. Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are:
Xanax, Soma, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Talwin, Ambien, Tramadol
Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes. Some examples of Schedule V drugs are:
cough preparations with less than 200 milligrams of codeine or per 100 milliliters (Robitussin AC), Lomotil, Motofen, Lyrica, Parepectolin
Special Operations Outlook 2019 Digital Edition is here!
USS Nautilus at sea during initial trials. Few at this stage understood the changes Nautilus would bring to naval warfare. National Archives photo
When Cmdr. Eugene P. Wilkinson flashed the famous message that titles this article on Jan. 17, 1955, it is unknown if he fully realized just what his order to take USS Nautilus (SSN 571) out to sea would do to naval warfare. Given that there had been a minor engineering problem just as Nautilus was getting underway, it is doubtful that he had much time for thoughtful contemplation. Professional naval officers of Wilkinson’s caliber rarely consider their places in history during the moments that it is being made. Nevertheless, as he conned the new submarine down the channel toward Long Island Sound, Wilkinson was opening a new era of naval technology and engineering that would be as important as anything that came before.
From the Nautilus would evolve the largest, fastest, most powerful, sophisticated, and deadly naval vessels in history.
From the Nautilus would evolve the largest, fastest, most powerful, sophisticated, and deadly naval vessels in history. These have ranged from mighty aircraft carriers like the USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) to the research submersible NR-1. There also have been lessons learned that have affected the current-day designs of every warship of every nation on Earth. Inertial navigation systems, water desalinization/purification plants, and environmental control systems all drew inspiration from those operated first aboard Nautilus. Perhaps most significantly of all, however, would be the shadow that nuclear propulsion and weapons would throw on warfare across the entire globe. On the plus side were their deterrence effects, which helped hold off global nuclear war until politics and economic realities forced the USSR from the Cold War. The negatives are the legacy of nuclear waste and cleanup that will occupy Russia and other nations of the world for generations to come. No new technology comes without costs and vices, and that first nuclear power plant aboard Nautilus was no exception. Only a half-century later can we even begin to assess the balance between the two.
USS Nautilus practices an emergency surface in August 1955 with DD 837 in the foreground. Exercises with other U.S. Navy and NATO units showed the superiority of nuclear-powered submarines. National Archives photo
The coming of nuclear propulsion and nuclear weapons to naval warfare was perhaps the most important new development since Robert Fulton put a boiler on a boat in the early 1800s. Fulton’s development and construction of the steamboat Clermont and its successful test run on Aug. 17, 1807, would eventually free sailors from the tyranny of the wind for their mobility. Within 100 years, the world would be built around steam-powered ships and trains for transportation and commerce. Nevertheless, the need to carry bulk fuels like wood, coal, or oil meant that warships would always be tied to the land for refueling every few weeks. Even the development of underway replenishment just prior to World War II meant living at the end of a landlocked logistical pipeline.
Adm. Hyman G. Rickover’s vision of marrying atomic reactors and steam turbines in the Nautilus freed nuclear-powered warships from limits of speed and endurance dictated by fossil fuels. The first reactor core of Nautilus lasted not weeks, but two years and 62,572 steaming miles. Over the years, this early core life has been extended to the point where the new Virginia-class (SSN 774) attack submarines will have a single nuclear fuel load that will last the lifetime of the boat. Back in the early days of nuclear propulsion, however, the endurance of the new atomic-powered boats was astounding to sailors used to fossil-fueled vessels.
The first reactor core of Nautilus lasted not weeks, but two years and 62,572 steaming miles.
With that endurance came the confidence and willingness by national leaders to entrust difficult, clandestine, or high-risk missions to nuclear submarines. Nowhere was this more aptly shown than on the monumental world circumnavigation voyage of USS Triton (SSN 586) on her shakedown cruise in 1960. When Capt. Edward “Ned” Beach laid out the route and schedule, the clear limitations of the plan centered more on the ability to stow enough food and toilet paper than any endurance shortcomings of Triton’s twin nuclear power plants or her crew. By 1961, the Nautilus, already made obsolete by rapid submarine developments, was being used to conduct covert surveillance of Soviet thermonuclear weapons tests in the Arctic. Sandwiched between these two events was the coming of the USS George Washington (SSBN 598), armed with the Polaris missile system. The merging of submarine stealth, nuclear propulsion, long-range ballistic missiles, and thermonuclear warheads created the most powerful, mobile, and survivable weapons system in history.
In practical terms, the endurance of nuclear-powered warships is limited only by the needs of their crews for supplies and rest. In terms of top speed, only the minds of naval engineers and physical hydrodynamics have limited the top speed of submarines and surface vessels powered by atomic energy. Reports of the Russian Project 661 (NATO “Papa” class, with over 80,000 shp) guided missile/attack submarine achieving speeds in excess of 44 knots on trials give some idea of the ultimate potential of nuclear power plants. However, practical experience showed that the real value of atomic power in warships lay in their sustained speed. Where World War II American fleet submarines might have had an economical surface speed of around 10 knots for transit to their operating areas, Nautilus could sustain twice that rate indefinitely while running submerged. In that single fact lay much of the Nautilus’ early success.
The historic message sent by Cmdr. Eugene P. Wilkinson on Jan. 17, 1955. National Archives photo
On her shakedown cruise in May 1955, Nautilus completed a submerged run of 1,381 miles, from New London, Conn., to San Juan, Puerto Rico, in 89.9 hours, setting a number of records. This was the fastest transit ever between the two ports, and the longest distance by a factor of 10 ever traveled by a fully submerged (non-snorkeling) submarine. Two months later, from July 11, 1955, to Aug. 5, 1955, Nautilus participated in a series of exercises off of Bermuda with NATO Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) forces. These wargames were designed to assess the effects of the Nautilus’ sustained high speed upon prevailing ASW tactics, ships, sensors, and weaponry. The results were, in a word, startling. Wilkinson, a skilled and wily submarine veteran with a Silver Star from World War II, ran circles around the NATO force with his new boat. From far outside of the NATO formations, Wilkinson would dash in at over 20 knots, unload a spread of simulated torpedoes, and run away so quickly that the ASW ships could not react in time to give chase. When they did, the escorts found that sea conditions frequently kept them from staying up with Nautilus and maintaining a tracking solution.
What makes these two incidents unique was that Nautilus was not even a commissioned warship when they took place, and that she was really just one of a pair of engineering prototypes for evaluation of atomic power plants. In fact, Nautilus was not even that fast, deep-diving, or quiet by the standards of the day. Along with her half-sister USS Seawolf (SSN 575 – which was testing a liquid sodium metal-cooled reactor), Nautilus was based upon a modified Tang-class hull. This meant that even with her STR/S2W reactor generating 13,400 shp, Nautilus was only capable of about 23 knots while submerged and 22 knots on the surface, with a test depth of only 700 feet. By comparison, the Soviet Union’s first nuclear submarine, the Project 627 (NATO “November”-class with two MV-A reactors and 35,000 shp) K-3, was capable of submerged speeds in excess of 30 knots and had a 985-foot test depth.
In short, Nautilus was, by the standards we apply in the 21st century, slow, weak, and noisy, with poor eyes and ears. She also was expensive, costing over twice as much to build and operate than a conventional diesel-electric boat with the same armament and sensor load.
As if the mechanical shortcomings of Nautilus were not enough to overcome, there was the matter of noise. Nautilus was from the last generation of American submarines that gave little or no design consideration to the issue of machinery-generated noise. Unlike earlier boats, which were relatively quiet while running submerged on electric motors (using diesel engines on the surface), nuclear submarines use the same power plant full-time, with all their pumps and other machinery running. This meant that Nautilus was vulnerable to detection by passive sonar systems, which were becoming more sensitive with the addition of solid-state electronics. The radiated machinery noise also interfered with Nautilus’ own sonar systems, which were initially rather anemic. In short, Nautilus was, by the standards we apply in the 21st century, slow, weak, and noisy, with poor eyes and ears. She also was expensive, costing over twice as much to build and operate than a conventional diesel-electric boat with the same armament and sensor load.
Choosing Your Lincoln Nautilus
The 2021 Nautilus comes with three trim levels: Standard, Reserve, and Black Label. Pricing starts at $42,035 and tops out at $66,085 for the Black Label.
The Standard and Reserve carry a turbocharged four-cylinder engine. The Black Label gets a twin-turbo V6, which is optional on the Reserve.
|Engine Type||Horsepower||Torque||Fuel Economy (Combined)|
|2.0L Turbo 4-Cylinder||250 hp||280 lb-ft||23 mpg|
|2.7L Twin-Turbo V6||335 hp||380 lb-ft||21 mpg|
Both engines use an eight-speed automatic transmission. All-wheel drive costs $2,500 on four-cylinder models and comes standard with the V6. Adding the V6 AWD combo to the Reserve costs $5,195.
The AWD Nautilus can tow up to 3,500 pounds with either engine, versus just 1,500 with the standard front-drive setup.
Passenger and Cargo Capacity
The Nautilus is a midsize, two-row crossover with room for five to get comfortable. There are 37.2 cubic feet of cargo space behind the rear seat, and 68.8 cubic feet with it folded.
Every Nautilus comes with Lincoln Co-Pilot360, which furnishes lane-keeping assist, blind-spot monitoring, automatic high beams, automatic emergency braking with pedestrian detection, and rear parking sensors.
Lincoln Co-Pilot360 Plus adds adaptive cruise control with lane-centering, evasive steering assist, a surround-view camera, and an automated parking system with front sensors. This upgrade is standard on the Black Label and included in the Reserve's $3,420 Reserve I Package.
The Standard model offers a 13.2-touchscreen, 10 speakers, four USB ports, satellite radio, and wired Apple CarPlay and Android Auto. The Select I Package ($1,815) includes navigation and other features.
Navigation is standard on the Reserve, along with wireless charging and a 13-speaker Revel sound system. The Black Label gets a 19-speaker Revel system with HD radio.
The Standard trim includes power 10-way front seats, remote start, full LED lighting, a power liftgate, faux leather upholstery, and 18-inch painted aluminum wheels.
The Standard I Package ($1,815) adds genuine leather seats, navigation, a universal home remote, and bright-finish wheels.
The Reserve comes standard with the Standard I equipment, plus a panoramic sunroof, heated and ventilated front seats, heated rear seats, a heated steering wheel, automatic wipers, and a hands-free liftgate.
In addition to Co-Pilot360 Plus, the Reserve I Package adds Phone As a Key and 20-inch wheels. The other package choice, Select II ($8,445), also contains Class II trailering equipment, a cargo management system, and 21-inch high-polish wheels.
Buyer can upgrade to 22-way massaging front seats for $1,500. A rear video entertainment system is available for $1,995, but not in conjunction with the fancy seats.
The Black Label features an extended Venetian leather and wood interior in the buyer's choice of design themes, Chalet or Flight.
Ownership includes a host of exclusive services and a designated concierge. The 22-way seats and rear entertainment system remain optional, but nearly everything else is standard.
The 2021 Nautilus trims are reasonably priced for what you get. If the Standard model feels a bit austere, that can be easily solved by advancing to the Reserve at a commensurate increase in price. Keep in mind the Black Label's heftier tag isn't just for the car, but also the royal treatment that comes with it.
USS Nautilus (SSN 571)
USS NAUTILUS was the Navy's first nuclear-powered vessel and the fourth ship in the Navy to bear the name. She was also the world's first ship to reach the geographic North Pole. Both decommissioned and stricken from the Navy list on March 3, 1980, the NAUTILUS became a museum on May 20, 1982 and is now located at the Historic NAUTILUS & Submarine Force Museum at New London, Conn. Click here for a photo tour of the preserved NAUTILUS.
|General Characteristics:||Awarded: August 2, 1951|
|Keel laid: June 14, 1952|
|Launched: January 21, 1954|
|Commissioned: September 30, 1954|
|Decommissioned: March 3, 1980|
|Builder: Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation, Groton, CT.|
|Propulsion system: one nuclear reactor|
|Length: 324 feet (98.75 meters)|
|Beam: 27.8 feet (8.47 meters)|
|Draft: 22 feet (6.7 meters)|
|Displacement: Surfaced: approx. 3,530 tons Submerged: approx. 4,090 tons|
|Speed: Surfaced: approx. 22 knots Submerged: approx. +20 knots|
|Armament: six 533 mm torpedo tubes|
|Crew: 13 Officers, 92 Enlisted|
This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS NAUTILUS. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.
Accidents aboard USS NAUTILUS:
|September 16, 1954||Groton, Conn.|