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Emil Maurice

Emil Maurice

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Emil Maurice was born in Westermoor, Germany, on 19th January, 1897. A watchmaker, he joined the Nazi Party in 1919 (member No. 19). He became a close friend of Adolf Hitler and in 1920 became head of his bodyguard at public meetings. According to Alan Bullock, the author of Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (1962): "The strong-arm squades were first formed in the summer of 1920, under the command of an ex-convict and watchmaker, Emil Maurice, but their definitive organization dates from August 1921, when a so-called Gymmnastic and Sports Division was set up inside the Party."

This group eventually became known as the Sturm Abteilung (SA). William L. Shirer, the author of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1960) points out: "The storm troopers, outfitted in brown uniforms, were recruited largely from the freebooters of the free corps and placed under the command of Johann Ulrich Klintzich."

Maurice took part in the Munich Putsch in 1923 and was briefly imprisoned with Adolf Hitler at Landsberg Castle in Munich. In prison he served as Hitler's batman and secretary. Hitler's business manager, Max Amnan, proposed that he should spend his time in prison writing his autobiography. Hitler, who had never fully mastered writing, was at first not keen on the idea. However, he agreed when it was suggested that he should dictate his thoughts to a ghostwriter. The prison authorities agreed that Maurice could live in the prison to help him with the task.

After he was released from prison Maurice worked as Hitler's chauffeur. He became one of Hitler's inner-circle that included Heinrich Hoffmann, Ernst Hanfstaengel, Max Amnan and Rudolf Hess. According to Louis L. Snyder: "Maurice was not popular in Nazi Party circles. Dark and of French descent, he was accused in the inner entourage of having Jewish blood."

In August 1928, Hitler's half-sister, Angela Raubal, now a widow, agreed to be his housekeeper. Her young daughter, Geli Raubal, also moved in with Hitler. Geli became a close friend of Henriette Hoffmann, the young daughter of Heinrich Hoffmann, Hitler's official photographer. Hitler told Otto Wagener: "I can sit next to young women who leave me completely cold. I feel nothing, or they actually irritate me. But a girl like the little Hoffmann or Geli (Raubal) - with them I become cheerful and bright, and if I have listened for an hour to their perhaps silly chatter - or I have only to sit next to them - then I am free of all weariness and listlessness I can go back to work refreshed."

Joachim Fest, the author of Hitler (1973), wrote: "The affection Hitler felt for this pretty, superficial niece soon developed into a passionate relationship hopelessly burdened by his intolerance, his romantic ideal of womanhood and avuncular scruples." Hitler, who had now turned forty, became infatuated with Geli and rumours soon spread that he was having an affair with his young niece. Maurice commented: "He liked to show her off everywhere; he was proud of being seen in the company of such an attractive girl. He was convinced that in this way he impressed his comrades in the party, whose wives or girlfriends nearly all looked like washerwomen."

Maurice was also interested in Geli Raubal. He later told Nerin E. Gun, the author of Eva Braun: Hitler's Mistress (1969), interviewed Maurice about Geli. He testified that "Her big eyes were a poem and she had magnificent hair. People in the street would turn round to take another look at her, though people don't do that in Munich." Maurice was aware that Hitler was very interested in Geli: "He liked to show her off everywhere; he was proud of being seen in the company of such an attractive girl. He was convinced that in this way he impressed his comrades in the party, whose wives or girlfriends nearly all looked like washerwomen."

Maurice admitted that he was "madly in love" with Geli and "I decided to become engaged to Geli... she gladly accepted my proposal". Henriette Hoffmann believes that Geli was in love with Maurice: "He was a sensitive man, not just someone who took pride in fighting, and there was a genuine tenderness behind his affability." Ernst Hanfstaengel believes that Geli had turned away from Hitler because of his perverted sexual desires. This idea is supported by Wilhelm Stocker, an SA officer, who was often on guard duty outside Hitler's Munich flat. He later told the author of Eva and Adolf (1974): "She(Geli) admitted to me that at times Hitler made her do things in the privacy of her room that sickened her but when I asked her why she didn't refuse to do them she just shrugged and said that she didn't want to lose him to some woman that would do what he wanted. She was a girl that needed attention and needed it often. And she definitely wanted to remain Hitler's favourite girlfriend. She was willing to do anything to retain that status. At the beginning of 1931 I think she was worried that there might be another woman in Hitler's life because she mentioned to me several times that her uncle didn't seem to be as interested in her as he once was."

Ian Kershaw has argued in Hitler 1889-1936 (1998): "When Hitler found out about Geli's liaison with Emil Maurice, his bodyguard and chaufferur, there was such a scene that Maurice feared Hitler was going to shoot him." On 24th December, 1927 Geli wrote to Maurice: "The postman has already brought me three letters from you, but never have I been so happy as I was over the last. Perhaps that's the reason we've had such bad experiences over the last few days. Uncle Adolf is insisting that we should wait two years. Think of it, Emil, two whole years of only being able to kiss each other now and then and always having Uncle adolf in charge. I can only give you my love and be unconditionally faithful to you. I love you so infinitely much. Uncle Adolf insists that I should go on with my studies."

According to Ronald Hayman, the author of Hitler & Geli (1997), there are three versions of what afterwards happened to Maurice. He points out that Ernst Hanfstaengel belives that, instead of sacking him, Hitler "gradually started to freeze him out, fell behind in paying his wages, and in the end Maurice himself made the break." Another story is that Otto Strasser overheard a conversation in which Hitler told Maurice he was never to set foot in the house again, and Maurice replied: "Sack me, and I'll take the whole story to the Frankfurter Zeitung!" Hitler gave in to the threat. "The third version is that Hitler threatened to sack Maurice unless he broke off the engagement, and implemented his threat when Maurice tried to defy him. It is possible that all three stories are untrue."

Lothar Machtan has argued in The Hidden Hitler (2001) that Maurice attempted to blackmail Hitler about his relationship with Maria Reiter. "As early as 1927, Party headquarters had received some anonymous letters accusing Hitler of seducing a minor. It later transpired that their author was a certain Ida Arnold, a girlfriend of Maurice, who had invited Mimi to coffee and skillfully pumped her for information. Feeling cornered, Hitler requested Maria Reiter to make a sworn deposition to the effect that she had had 'no relationship of any kind' with him. Although this amounted to flagrant perjury, it must have seemed Hitler's only possible recourse in the summer of 1928. He was clearly under extreme pressure, because nothing could have presented a greater threat to him, as party leader, than revelations about his private life - and who knew more about that subject than Emil Maurice?"

Maurice was eventually sacked. Maurice sued Hitler for arrears of salary amounting to 3000 marks. When the case was heard at the Arbeitsgericht in Munich, the court dealing with disputes over employment, Hitler was ordered to pay Maurice 500 marks. He used the money to set himself up as a watchmaker, but he did not leave the SA, transferring in 1932 to the more elite SS.

Maurice was later reinstated and was with Adolf Hitler during the Night of the Long Knives and was responsible for the shooting of Edmund Heines and his boyfriend on 30th June, 1934. He was also responsible for the killing Father Bernhard Stempfle, who had been talking about Hitler's relationship with Geli Raubal.

In 1935 Heinrich Himmler, the head of Reichsführer-SS, introduced new racial purity rules. When it was discovered that Maurice his great-grandfather, Charles Maurice Schwartzenberger, was Jewish. Himmler recommended that Maurice be expelled from the SS. However, Adolf Hitler protected him and he declared him an "Honorary Aryan".

Like most of Hitler's friends from his earlier life, Maurice was rewarded with a sinecure. In 1936 he became a Reichstag deputy for Leipzig and from 1937 was the chairman of the Landeshandwerksmeister, a society of professional handicraft workers in Munich. From 1940 to 1942, he served in the Luftwaffe as an officer. After the war in 1948, he was sentenced to four years in a labor camp.

Emil Maurice died in Munich on 6th February 1972.

The postman has already brought me three letters from you, but never have I been so happy as I was over the last. Uncle Adolf insists that I should go on with my studies.

You know, Hoffmann, I'm so concerned about Geli's future that I feel I have to watch over her. I love Geli and could marry her. Good! But you know what my viewpoint is. I want to remain single. So I retain the right to exert an influence on her circle of friends until such a time as she finds the right man. What Geli sees as compulsion is simply prudence. I want to stop her from falling into the hands of someone unsuitable.

Geli Raubal was simple and attractive, with a pleasant voice which she wanted to have trained for singing. During the next four years she became Hitler's constant companion, and when her uncle acquired his flat on the Prinzregentenplatz she spent much time with him in Munich as well as up at the Obersalzberg. This period in Munich Hitler later described as the happiest in his life; he idolised this girl, who was twenty years younger than himself, took her with him whenever he could - in short, he fell in love with her.

Whether Geli was ever in love with him is uncertain. She was flattered and impressed by her now famous uncle, she enjoyed going about with him, but she suffered from his hypersensitive jealousy. Hitler refused to let her have any life of her own; he refused to let her go to Vienna to have her voice trained; he was beside himself with fury when he discovered that she had allowed Emil Maurice, his chauffeur, to make love to her, and forbade her to have anything to do with any other man.

Maurice was not popular in nazi party circles. Dark and of French descent, he was accused in the inner entourage of having Jewish blood. In the summer of 1924, while in Landsberg Prison, Maurice took notes of Hitler's first dictation for Mein Kampf, a task completed by Rudolf Hess. Maurice was friendly with Angela (Geli) Raubal, Hitler's niece, and it was believed that he was his employer's rival for her affections before her suicide on September 18, 1931.

The fact is that in April 1928 Maurice went to court to claim RM 3000 in arrears of salary. He won his case: his employer was ordered to pay up, although only to the extent of RM 500. But that did not settle the matter as far as Maurice was concerned. He now applied further pressure. Gel] is reported to have told Otto Strasser that she had overheard a fierce altercation between him and Hitler. "You'll never set foot in this house again!" Hitler had shouted. "If you throw me out," Maurice retorted angrily, "I'll go and tell everything to the Frankfurter Zeitung!" That he was on course for blackmail is shown by the way in which he made a mountain out of the "Mimi Reiter" molehill.

As early as 1927, Party headquarters had received some anonymous letters accusing Hitler of seducing a minor. It later transpired that their author was a certain Ida Arnold, a girlfriend of Maurice, who had invited "Mimi" to coffee and skillfully pumped her for information. Feeling cornered, Hitler requested Maria Reiter to make a sworn deposition to the effect that she had had "no relationship of any kind" with him." Although this amounted to flagrant perjury, it must have seemed Hitler's only possible recourse in the summer of 1928. He was clearly under extreme pressure, because nothing could have presented a greater threat to him, as party leader, than revelations about his private life - and who knew more about that subject than Emil Maurice?

On August 1, 1928, Hitler wrote Maurice an unobjectionable reference. The latter now described himself as an "outlaw" who had to live "in complete seclusion" and carve out a new life subjected to "many severe privations." He was not too badly off, however, because he soon opened a watchmaker's shop in Munich - even though it was years since he had worked as a watchmaker and he still lacked his master's diploma. He must also have required a substantial amount of starting capital, and who but Hitler could have provided such a cash injection? Otto Strasser claimed that Maurice was paid RM 20,000 in hush money." He now quit the stage. Although he did not leave the Party, he and Hitler were through.

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1980-073-19A, Emil Maurice.jpg

For documentary purposes the German Federal Archive often retained the original image captions, which may be erroneous, biased, obsolete or politically extreme.

Emile Maurice

Born in 1955 and based most of his life in Cape Town, Emile Maurice was an artist, curator, author educator and Nation builder. He received an Advanced Diploma in Fine Art, Michaelis School of Art, University of Cape Town in 1977 and then went to the USA where he obtained his MA graduate degree in art history (Syracuse University, NY), in 1981. In 1995 Maurice was appointed Head of Education at the South African National Gallery (SANG). Emile left SANG in 2000 to take up a position with Heritage Agency where he worked on numerous projects including an exhibition for the Nelson Mandela Gateway to Robben Island, the Alexandra Renewal Project, and the management of the Constitutional Court art collection. Most recently he was Convening the Factory of Arts at UWC's Centre for Humanities Research.

Maurice's work within arts, history and heritage almost always had a social aspect, investigating poverty, peace building and communal space. His primary research interest pertained to the re-writing of South African cultural history with a view to greater equity and representation in the context of colonial and apartheid marginalisation.

Emil Maurice

Emil Maurice (19 January 1897, Westermoor – 6 February 1972, Munich ) was an early member of the Nazi Party. A watchmaker, he was a close associate of Adolf Hitler with a personal friendship dating back to at least 1919. With the founding of the Sturmabteilung in 1920, Maurice became the first Oberster SA-Führer (Supreme SA Leader).

In 1923, Maurice also became the SA commander of the newly established Stabswache, a special SA company given the task of guarding Hitler at Nazi parties and rallies. He was imprisoned with Hitler and Rudolf Hess at Lansberg after the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch.

In 1925, two years after the failed Beer Hall Putsch, Maurice and Hitler refounded the Stabswache as the Stosstrupp Adolf Hitler which was renamed, later that year, as the Schutzstaffel (SS). At that time, Hitler became SS Member nr. 1 and Emil Maurice became SS Member nr. 2. Maurice became an SS-Führer in the new organization, although the leadership of the SS was assumed by Julius Schreck, the first Reichsführer-SS. Maurice became Hitler's chauffeur. He reportedly had a brief relationship with Geli Raubal, Hitler's niece, and lost his job as Hitler's chauffeur.

When the SS was reorganized and began to expand in 1932, Maurice became a senior SS officer and would eventually be promoted to the rank SS-Oberführer. While Maurice never became a top commander of the SS his status as SS Member #2 effectively credited him as the actual founder of the organization. Heinrich Himmler, who ultimately would become the most recognized leader of the SS, held SS Member #168.

Maurice was with Hitler during the Night of the Long Knives— Maurice shot to death Edmund Heines and his boyfriend on 30th June, 1934. He also shot and killed Father Bernhard Stempfle, who had been talking about Hitler's relationship with Geli Raubal. [1]

After Himmler had become Reichsführer-SS, Maurice fell afoul of Himmler's racial purity rules for SS officers, when he had to submit details of his family history before he was allowed to marry. All SS officers had to prove racial purity back to 1750, and it turned out that Maurice had Jewish ancestry – Charles Maurice Schwartzenberger (1805�), the founder of Thalia Theater in Hamburg, was his great-grandfather. Himmler, who had always been jealous of Hitler's close friends from the early days of the Party, and especially of the lack of control he had over Hitler's inner bodyguards, was delighted.

He recommended that Maurice be expelled from the SS, along with other members of his family. To Himmler's annoyance however, the Führer stood by his old friend. In a secret letter written on the 31.8.1935, Hitler compelled Himmler to make an exception for Maurice and his brothers, who were informally declared "Honorary Aryans" and allowed to stay in the SS. Despite his Jewish ancestry, and his relationship with Hitler's niece, Geli Raubal, Maurice was first and foremost a loyal companion to Hitler.


After secondary school and an apprenticeship as a watchmaker , Maurice was a soldier in the Bavarian Army from 1917 to 1919 , without serving in the First World War .

At the end of 1919 he joined the right-wing German Workers 'Party , which in February 1920 was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). Under the leadership of Anton Drexler, he participated in the suppression of the Munich Soviet Republic and fought in Upper Silesia in 1921 . The new party needed a security service for its events. To this end, Maurice founded a "gymnastics and sports club" in November 1920, which was renamed " Sturmabteilung " (SA) in October 1921 . In August 1921, he transferred the leadership of the SA, which was filled with Freikorps , to Hans Ulrich Klintzsch, whom the influential Freikorps leader Hermann Ehrhardt had ordered . Maurice took part in the Hitler-Ludendorff Putsch in November 1923 in the " Adolf Hitler Assault Troop " . As a result, he was imprisoned like Hitler in the Landsberg correctional facility in 1924 .

According to the results of more recent research , the claim, which occurs frequently in literature and the press, that Hitler dictated parts of his book Mein Kampf to Maurice while they were in prison , is very likely incorrect. After his imprisonment, Maurice again acted temporarily as Hitler's bodyguard and personal companion from 1925. When the " Schutzstaffel " (SS) initially emerged from a hall order service , Maurice was given SS number 2.

Maurice was not without controversy in party circles. When Hitler's niece Geli Raubal 1931 September 18 suicide committed, Maurice was suspected of having an affair talk to her. Rumor has it that she was pregnant by him.

With Chéri Maurice, Maurice had a Jewish great-grandfather (1805-1896), but due to his closeness to Adolf Hitler he was tolerated as an " honorary Aryan " contrary to the other demands for Himmler's proof of Aryan status in the SS .

1933 Maurice was his previous involvement in the rise of Nazism councilor in recognizing Munich City Council and with the Blood Order and the Golden Party Badge awarded the NSDAP.

Maurice's involvement in the so-called Röhm Putsch has not yet been conclusively clarified in research. In the early literature in particular, one often finds the claim that Maurice accompanied Hitler to Bad Wiessee on June 30, 1934 and there participated in the arrest of Ernst Röhm and other high SA leaders, which is considered unlikely by today's standards. In this context, the incorrect statement appeared repeatedly that Maurice had shot SA-Obergruppenführer Edmund Heines .

In 1935 he married the medical student Hedwig Ploetz (1911–2003).

From 1936 Ministerial Director, Maurice became President of the Chamber of Crafts in Munich on April 1, 1937. From March 29, 1936 he was a member of the National Socialist Reichstag . Within the SS, Maurice rose to the rank of SS Oberführer , which he was given on January 30, 1939 on an honorary basis.

1948 sentenced him a Spruchkammer to four years in a labor camp and the withdrawal of 30 percent of its assets. Maurice did not have to serve his sentence in full. Maurice died in 1972 at the age of 75. He was buried in the Nordfriedhof in Munich.


L'amicizia tra Maurice e Hitler risaliva al 1919, quando entrambi erano membri del DAP, il Partito Tedesco dei Lavoratori. Con la fondazione delle Sturmabteilung, Maurice divenne il primo Oberster SA-Führer (Comandante supremo delle SA). Nel 1923 Maurice divenne membro delle Stabswache, le guardie che provvedevano alla sicurezza personale di Hitler Maurice in particolare ebbe il compito delle procedure di sicurezza in tutte le uscite di Hitler, compresi i raduni di partito. Successivamente l'unità fu rinominata Stoßtrupp, e oltre a Maurice ne facevano parte anche Julius Schreck, Joseph Berchtold e Erhard Heiden, i primi tre Reichsführer-SS.

Il 9 novembre 1923 le Stoßtrupp, assieme alle SA e ad altre unità paramilitari, presero parte al fallito Putsch di Monaco. Come conseguenza, Maurice fu arrestato assieme a Hitler, Rudolf Hess e ad altri capi nazisti, ed incarcerato nella prigione di Landsberg. Durante la prigionia Maurice scrisse sotto dettatura alcuni capitoli del Mein Kampf e vi è anche citato durante questo periodo il partito nazista, come pure le Stoßtrupp, era stato sciolto e messo fuori legge.

Dopo il rilascio di Hitler e degli altri membri nazisti, il partito fu rifondato e nel 1925 Hitler ordinò la costituzione di un nuovo raggruppamento per la sua difesa personale, denominato Schutzkommando, al cui vertice fu posto Julius Schreck, ma di cui facevano parte Maurice ed altri ex-membri delle Stoßtrupp successivamente quello stesso anno lo Schutzkommando si espanse a livello nazionale e venne prima chiamato Sturmstaffel ed infine il 9 novembre 1925 Schutzstaffel, abbreviato in SS. Hitler ricevette la tessera n.1, mentre Maurice la n.2.


Nach der Realschule und einer Uhrmacherlehre war Maurice von 1917 bis 1919 Soldat der Bayerischen Armee, ohne im Ersten Weltkrieg zum Einsatz zu kommen.

Ende 1919 trat er in die rechte Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ein, die sich im Februar 1920 in Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) umbenannte. Er beteiligte sich unter der Führung von Anton Drexler an der Niederschlagung der Münchner Räterepublik und kämpfte 1921 in Oberschlesien. Die neue Partei brauchte für ihre Veranstaltungen einen Ordnungsdienst. Dafür gründete Maurice im November 1920 einen „Turn- und Sportverein“, der im Oktober 1921 in „Sturmabteilung“ (SA) umbenannt wurde. [1] Die Führung der mit Freikorps ausgefüllten SA übertrug er im August 1921 auf den vom einflussreichen Freikorps-Anführer Hermann Ehrhardt abbeorderten Hans Ulrich Klintzsch.

Am 8. und 9. November 1923 beteiligte Maurice sich als Angehöriger des „Stoßtrupp Adolf Hitler“ am Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch in München. Im Rahmen des "kleinen" Hitler-Putsch-Prozesses wurde Maurice aufgrund seiner Teilnahme an dem gescheiterten Putsch zusammen mit 39 anderen Angehörigen des Stoßtrupps im April vor dem Volksgericht München I wegen Beihilfe zum Hochverrat angeklagt. Am 28. April 1924 wurde er für schuldig befunden und zu einer Haftstrafe von 15 Monaten verurteilt. Einige Monate hiervon verbüßte er bis Anfang 1925 in der Justizvollzugsanstalt Landsberg. Zusammen mit Hitler und zwei Dutzend anderen Putschteilnehmern wurde er während seiner Haftzeit in der sogenannten Festungsabteilung der Anstalt untergebracht, in der die Putschisten als eine von anderen Häftlingen abgetrennte eigene kleine Gemeinschaft unter ausgesprochen komfortablen Bedingungen lebten.

Die in der Literatur und Presse häufig auftauchende Behauptung, Hitler habe Maurice während der gemeinsamen Haftzeit Teile seines Buches Mein Kampf diktiert, ist nach den Ergebnissen der neueren Forschung mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit unzutreffend. [2] Nach der Haft fungierte Maurice ab 1925 erneut zeitweise als Leibwächter und persönlicher Begleiter Hitlers. Bei der Gründung der zunächst aus einem Saalordnungsdienst hervorgegangenen „Schutzstaffel“ (SS) erhielt Maurice die SS-Nummer 2.

Maurice war in Parteikreisen nicht unumstritten. Als Hitlers Nichte Geli Raubal am 18. September 1931 Suizid beging, wurde Maurice verdächtigt, eine Liebesbeziehung mit ihr unterhalten zu haben. Gerüchteweise sei sie von ihm schwanger gewesen.

Maurice hatte mit Chéri Maurice einen jüdischen Urgroßvater (1805–1896), dennoch wurde er aufgrund seiner Nähe zu Adolf Hitler als „Ehren-Arier“ konträr zur sonstigen Forderung nach einem Ariernachweis von Himmler in der SS geduldet. [3]

1933 wurde Maurice in Anerkennung seiner früheren Beteiligung am Erstarken des Nationalsozialismus Ratsherr im Münchner Stadtrat und mit dem Blutorden sowie dem Goldenen Parteiabzeichen der NSDAP ausgezeichnet.

Maurices Beteiligung am sogenannten Röhm-Putsch ist in der Forschung noch nicht abschließend geklärt. Besonders in der frühen Literatur findet sich häufig die Behauptung, Maurice habe Hitler am 30. Juni 1934 nach Bad Wiessee begleitet und sich dort an der Verhaftung von Ernst Röhm und anderen hohen SA-Führern beteiligt, was nach heutigem Stand als eher unwahrscheinlich gilt. In diesem Zusammenhang tauchte auch wiederholt die unzutreffende Angabe auf, Maurice habe dabei den SA-Obergruppenführer Edmund Heines erschossen.

1935 heiratete er die Medizinstudentin Hedwig Ploetz (1911–2003). [4]

Ab 1936 Ministerialdirektor, wurde Maurice am 1. April 1937 Präsident der Handwerkskammer München. [5] Ab 29. März 1936 gehörte er dem nationalsozialistischen Reichstag an. Innerhalb der SS stieg Maurice bis in den Rang eines SS-Oberführers auf, der ihm am 30. Januar 1939 [6] ehrenhalber verliehen wurde.

1948 verurteilte ihn eine Spruchkammer zu vier Jahren Arbeitslager und dem Einzug von 30 Prozent seines Vermögens. Seine Strafe musste Maurice nicht vollständig verbüßen. Maurice starb 1972 im Alter von 75 Jahren. Er wurde auf dem Nordfriedhof in München begraben. [7]

Maurice was horlogemaker van beroep. Hij werd een naaste medewerker van Adolf Hitler. Hun persoonlijke vriendschap dateerde van minstens 1919, toen beiden lid waren van de Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP). [4] In 1920 werd de Sturmabteilung opgericht. Maurice werd de eerste Oberster SA-Führer.

In 1923 werd Maurice SA-commandant van de nieuw opgerichte Stabswache, een speciale SA-compagnie met als taak de bewaking van Hitler tijdens nazi-partijen en -congressen. [5] Later dat jaar werd de eenheid hernoemd tot Stoßtrupp Adolf Hitler (stoottroepen Adolf Hitler). [6] Maurice, Julius Schreck, Joseph Berchtold en Erhard Heiden waren allen lid van de Stoßtrupp. [7] De Stoßtrupp, SA en andere paramilitaire eenheden namen op 9 november 1923 deel aan de mislukte Bierkellerputsch in München. Hitler en Rudolf Hess werden gevangengezet in de gevangenis van Landsberg na de mislukte Bierkeller-putsch. [8] Tijdens deze gevangenschap werden de nazipartij en andere daaraan verbonden groeperingen, inclusief de Stoßtrupp, officieel ontbonden.

Na Hitlers vrijlating werd de nazipartij weer officieel heropgericht. Hitler gaf de opdracht voor het formeren van een nieuwe bodyguard-eenheid: de Schutzkommando (beschermingscommando). [9] Deze werd geformeerd door Julius Schreck en de oud Stoßtrupp-leden Maurice en Heiden. [7] [9] In hetzelfde jaar werd de Schutzkommando uitgebreid tot nationaal niveau en hernoemd tot Schutzstaffel (SS) (beschermingsafdeling). [10] Hitler kreeg SS-lidnummer één en Emil Maurice kreeg lidnummer twee. [4] Maurice werd de eerste SS-Führer in de nieuwe organisatie, hoewel Julius Schreck als eerste Reichsführer-SS het leiderschap van de SS op zich nam. [11] Maurice werd Hitlers chauffeur. Het gerucht ging binnen de partij dat hij een relatie had met Geli Raubal (de dochter van Hitlers halfzuster Angela) en dat zij zwanger van hem was toen zij suïcide beging.

Toen Himmler Reichsführer-SS werd, kwam Maurice met hem in conflict over diens raciale zuiverheidsvoorschriften voor SS-officieren, toen hij in verband met zijn huwelijk in 1935 openheid moest geven over zijn familiegeschiedenis. Himmler verklaarde toen dat Maurice, afgaande op zijn stamboom, zonder twijfel niet van Arische afkomst was. [12] Alle SS-officieren moesten bewijzen ze dat afstamden van sinds 1750 raciaal zuivere families. Het bleek echter dat Maurice joodse voorouders had: Charles Maurice Schwartzenberger (1805-1896), de oprichter van het Thalia theater in Hamburg, was zijn overgrootvader.

Himmler stelde voor dat Maurice uit de SS gezet zou worden, samen met andere leden van zijn familie. Tot zijn ergernis bleef de Führer zijn oude vriend echter steunen. [12] In een geheime brief, geschreven op 31 augustus 1935, dwong Hitler Himmler om een uitzondering te maken voor Maurice en zijn broers. Deze werden ”ere-Ariërs” en mochten in de SS blijven.

Hij werd in 1936 voor Leipzig afgevaardigde in de Reichstag en vanaf 1937 voorzitter van de Münchense Kamer van Koophandel.

Vanaf 1940 tot 1942, diende hij als Luftwaffe-officier. Na de oorlog werd hij in 1948 veroordeeld tot vier jaar werkkamp. Hij overleed op 6 februari 1972. [12]

Emil Maurice Net Worth

Emil Maurice estimated Net Worth, Salary, Income, Cars, Lifestyles & many more details have been updated below. Let’s check, How Rich is Emil Maurice in 2019-2020?

According to Wikipedia, Forbes, IMDb & Various Online resources, famous Military Emil Maurice’s net worth is $1-5 Million before died. Emil Maurice earned the money being a professional Military. Emil Maurice is from German.

Emil Maurice’s Net Worth:
$1-5 Million

Estimated Net Worth in 2020Under Review
Previous Year’s Net Worth (2019)Under Review
Annual Salary Under Review.
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In the early afternoon of November 9, 1923, the Nazis‘ wannabe-putsch had miserably failed at the Odeonsplatz in Munich under the guns of the Bavarian police. Adolf Hitler had dislocated his left arm as he fell on the pavement. Walter Schulze, head of the Munich SA Medical Unit, led him to Max-Joseph Platz, where they mounted Hitler’s old Selve 6/20 and fled southbound.

Selve 6/20 Model

After some errant manoeuvring, the car finally drove to Uffing at the Staffelsee Lake, to the house of the foreign press chief of the NSDAP, Ernst “Putzi” Hanfstängl. The landlord was not at home – he had not been on Odeonsplatz, but on a special mission in Munich’s Neuhausen district and was picked up by Heinrich Hoffmann, the party photographer, and brought to his apartment, whence he planned his escape to Austria.

  • Ernst Hanfstängl
  • Helene Hanfstängl

In Uffing, the refugees were taken care of by Putzi’s wife Helene Hanfstaengl, but the idyll did not last long – on Sunday, 11 November in the afternoon, the criminal police appeared and seized Hitler. He was first taken to Weilheim, the county seat, from where the magistrate examining the case transferred him to the custody of the state prison at Landsberg am Lech, where he arrived Monday at 11 o’clock.

The trial of Ludendorff, Hitler and the other defendants began on the morning of February 26, 1924, in the Munich Central Infantry School at Blutenburgstraße. 368 witnesses were heard in total. Lots of correspondents from all over the world and hundreds of spectators crowded the hall. Two battalions of police sealed the Mars- and Blutenburgstraße off with barbed wire and Spanish riders.

  • The Infantry School
  • The barriers

During the days of the trial at the Bavarian Peoples’ Court – established in violation of the Weimar Constitution and therefore actually illegal (the Reichsgericht at Leipzig – outside of Bavaria – would have been the proper court), he was housed in the local prison at Stadelheim in Munich.

  • Stadelheim Prison today
  • A cell (80 sq. ft)

The trial of Hitler et al. lasted from February 26 to April 1, 1924.

The Defendants: Heinz Pernet (Ludendorff’s son-in-law), Dr Friedrich Weber, Wilhelm Frick (Chief of the Munich Criminal Police), Hermann Kriebel, General Ludendorff, Hitler, Wilhelm Brückner (Leader of the SA München), Ernst Röhm, and Robert Wagner (Aide-de-Camp of Ludendorff)

The website of the Austrian historian Kurt Bauer features the statements of Hitler before the court (PDF link in German).

Here an excerpt of Hitler’s speech of February 26, 1924, before the court (in English, see link below):

[As the Putsch ended], I wanted to hear nothing more of this lying and libellous world, but in the course of the next few days, during the second week [of my arrest], as the campaign of lies which was being waged against us [by the Bavarian government] continued, and as one after another was arrested and brought to Landsberg prison, honest men whom I knew to be absolutely innocent, but whose sole crime was that they belonged to our Movement, men who knew nothing whatsoever about the events, but who were arrested because they shared our philosophy and the government was afraid that they would speak up in public, I came to a decision. I would defend myself before this court and fight to my last breath. Thus I have come into this room, not in order to explain things away, or lie about my responsibility no indeed! In fact, I protest that Oberstleutnant Kriebel has declared that he bears responsibility for what happened. Indeed, he had no responsibility for it at all. I alone bear the responsibility. I alone, when all is said and done, wanted to carry out the deed. The other gentlemen on trial here only negotiated with me at the end. I am convinced that I sought nothing bad. I bear the responsibility, and I will shoulder all the consequences. But one thing I must say: I am not a crook, and I do not feel like a criminal. On the contrary! …

If I stand here before the court [accused of being] a revolutionary, it is precisely because I am against revolution and against crimes. I do not consider myself guilty. I admit all the factual aspects of the charge. But I cannot plead that I am guilt of high treason for there can be no high treason against that treason to the Fatherland committed in 1918 [by the Republican Revolution].

It is impossible to prove that I began to commit high treason during the events of 8 and 9 November [1923], for the important points are my attitude and my whole activities which went on months before. Treason cannot arise from a single act, but in the preliminary conversations and planning for this act. If I really committed high treason thereby, I am astonished that the men with whom I planned all this [i.e. the Bavarian politicians], are not sitting in the dock beside me. I cannot plead guilty, since I am aware that the Prosecuting Attorney is legally obligated to charge everyone who discussed with us, and planned to carry out those acts I mean Messrs von Berchem, von Aufsaß, Kahr, Lossow, and Seißer and others. I must consider it an oversight that the Prosecuting Attorney has not charged these gentlemen too. And as I stated before, admit all the facts, disputing only the guilt, so long as my companions here in the dock are not increased by the presence of the gentlemen who wanted to the same things as we, and who in conversations with us planned to do the same thing—all of which I will be glad to tell the court, in the absence of the public! So long as these gentlemen do not stand here beside me, I reject the charge of high treason. …

I do not feel like a traitor, but as a good German, who wanted only the best for his people.

And, on March 27, at the trial’s conclusion:

My Lords!

The action on 8/9 November did not miscarry. I would have considered it a failure if even one mother had come to me and said, “Herr Hitler, you have my child on your conscience my child too fell that day.” But I assure you most solemnly: no mother ever said that to me. On the contrary, ten, hundreds, and ten thousand [men and women] have come, and have joined our ranks. An event which has not occurred in Germany since 1918 happened on that day: joyfully, young men went forth to death, to a death which one day will be hailed like the saying on the Obelisk: “They too died for the liberation of the Fatherland.” That is the most obvious sign of the success of that 8 November: for afterwards, the German people were not more depressed, but rather a wave of young Germany rose up, and joining together everywhere, and in powerful organizations, announced their new-found will. Thus, we see in this 8 November a great triumph, not only did it not produce depression, but it became the means for our Volk to become terribly enthusiastic to an extreme degree, and therefore I now believe that one day the hour will come when these masses who today bear our Swastika, and walk the streets carrying our swastika banners, will unite themselves with the very units which opposed us on 8 November. I thus believe that the blood which flowed on that day is not doomed to divide us forever.

When I learned, on the third day [of my arrest], that it was the Green Police [i.e. the riot-control police of Munich] a feeling of joy welled up within my soul at least it had not been the German army which had shot us down! I rejoiced that it was not the German army, which had befouled itself. Instead, the German army remained as it had been, and with certain exceptions, we could still express the conviction that one day the hour would come in which the German army, officers and men, would stand on our side, and the old Quartermaster-General of the World War [Ludendorff] could rejoin this military unit …

The army which we have been building grows and grows, from day to day, from hour to hour, faster than ever, and in these very days we can express the proud hope that in the near future these wild groups will become battalions, and the battalions will grow to be regiments, and the regiments to be divisions, and the old colours of the Empire will be picked up out of the slime, and our old flags will whip in the wind, and reconciliation will be attained, just as on the day of the last judgment! And we ourselves will be ready and willing to join in that reconciliation.

And then, my Lords, then out of our graves, our bones will appeal to that higher court which rules over all of us. For you, my Lords, will not speak the final judgment in this case that judgment will be up to “History,” the goddess of the highest court, which will speak over our graves and over yours. And when we appear before that court, I know its verdict in advance. It will not ask us: “Did you commit high treason?” for in the eyes of history, the Quartermaster-General of the World War, and his officers, who desired only the best, are considered to be only Germans who wanted to fight to defend their fatherland.

You may speak your verdict of “guilty” a thousand times over, but “History,” the goddess of a higher truth and a higher court, will one day laughingly tear up the charges of the Prosecution, and will laughingly tear up the verdict of this court, for she declares us to be innocent!
Proclamation of the Sentence, drawing by Otto. D. Franz Ludendorff, who was acquitted, leaves the Court

The trial never lost the character of a horse trade. Right at the beginning, the three lay judges Leonhard Beck (born May 6, 1867 in Schwandorn), Philipp Hermann (born October 21, 1865 in Nuremberg, † January 10, 1930 in Munich) and Christian Zimmerman told the court that they would agree to possible convictions only on the condition that any sentences would be suspended. To prevent the immediate disintegration of the trial and subsequent referral to the proper court in Leipzig, the court had to accept.

Newspaper Extra, April 1, 1924, at 10 a.m.

Ludendorff was acquitted and Hitler, Weber, Kriebel and Pöhner sentenced to a minimum sentence of five years of “Festungshaft” imprisonment and fines of 200 gold marks. Since pre-trial detention counted towards the time of incarceration, Frick, Röhm, Wagner and Brückner were immediately released on probation.

The term “Festungshaft” meant, according to the Reich Penal Code of 1871, imprisonment without compulsory labour and was a special provision for capital crimes on the occasion of duels or political crimes, in which “honourable reasons” were assumed – in contrast to greed, jealousy or other “lower” motives.

A few days after the end of the trial, Hitler, Herrmann Kriebel and Dr Friedrich Weber returned to Landsberg prison. The only other inmate in custody was the murderer of former Bavarian minister-president Kurt Eisner, Anton Count von Arco auf Valley, but he was released on probation on April 13, 1924, and pardoned in 1927. He had already been evicted from his old cell # 7, which Hitler took over.

Landsberg Prison, the main entrance Hitler’s Cell, no. 7

Hitler, Dr Weber, Kriebel, Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess, who arrived in May, were brought to five cells that formed a separate wing of the building, where a common day room was available as well. The men met there almost every day for social gatherings.

A rather interesting point of view was first published on December 19, 2015, in an article by Sven Felix Kellerhoff, Chief Editor of the Department of History of the German newspaper “Die Welt“. Prisoners of the “Festungshaft” category had the privilege of self-sufficiency (at their own expense) and hence the judicial guard Franz Hemmrich, who was responsible for their orders, noted in the second half of 1924:

Hitler, Maurice, Kriebel, Hess and Dr Weber

Notable was his consumption of butter (34 kilograms), sugar (45 kilograms), eggs (515 pieces), potatoes (50 kilograms) and lemons (88 pieces). Otherwise, Hitler also ordered noodles (black and white vermicelli, spaghetti, macaroni), peas (one kilogram), onions (2.5 kilograms), rice (3.5 kilograms), salad oil, vinegar essence, soup cubes, coffee beans (5 pounds), condensed milk (one can), vanilla and cinnamon (50 grams).

Other purchases, however, shattered the image of the teetotaller, that Hitler claimed all his life in public:

More interesting, however, is what Hitler ordered in addition: beer. 62 bottles in July, 47 in August, 60 in September and 47 were delivered in October. For November, there are hardly any entries while 34 bottles accrued in December until one week before Christmas. These were half-litre bottles thus, Hitler drank an average of just under a litre a day. That the beer was actually intended for him, can be concluded from the fact that Hemmrich noted specifically, if occasionally one of the then three daily bottles was intended for Hitler’s friend Emil Maurice, later SS-member No. 2.

It may, therefore, be concluded that a circle of merry men knew how to spend the days of their imprisonment in a rather liberal fashion. Of Hitler’s literary work on his book “Four and a half years of a fight against falsehood, stupidity and cowardice” – whose bulky title he later renamed “Mein Kampf” on the advice of a publisher – party legend claimed later, that the author dictated the text to Rudolf Hess freewheelingly in the style of an ingenious rhetorician, but recent findings indicate that he probably typed the text himself on the old portable typewriter which can be clearly seen in cell picture # 2.

The treatment given to Hitler and his fellow prisoners regarding visits was, however, truly extraordinary. The director, senior government councillor Otto Leybold, described the men as “nationally-minded men” and for that reason authorized the admission of visitors far beyond the normal level. Until his release, Hitler received no fewer than 330 visits. The Historical Lexicon of Bavaria relates:

In addition to lawyer Lorenz Roder, the most frequent visitors were Berlin piano manufacturers Edwin Bechstein(1859-1934) and his wife Helene, Erich Ludendorff, Max Amann (Hitler’s war sergeant, 1891-1957), and Hermione Hoffmann.

Since the beginning of April, Kriebel and Dr Weber enjoyed the privilege of “receiving visits of their closest relatives without surveillance,” which extended to members of their sprawling families. From his own family environment, Hitler was visited only by his half-sister Angela Franziska Raubal from Vienna and her minor children Leo (1906-1977) and Angela Maria, called “Geli” (1908-1931). They were allowed to speak to their half-brother and/or uncle on 17 June and 14 July 1924 for a period of just under three and four hours, respectively, without supervision. In addition, Leybold had approved that Hitler was allowed to conduct confidential discussions with political friends regularly without the presence of a prison guard.

  • Angela Raubal and her brother
  • Geli

One probably will not err in characterizing the conditions of detention as rather mimicking a men’s pension than a prison. The inmates reckoned with their release on probation after serving the minimum detention period of nine months, estimating their release approximately on October 1, 1924. To their detriment, the Munich prosecutor found out that the prisoners had established smuggling of their correspondence, which torpedoed the earliest release date. Director Leybold was then asked for a written recommendation, which turned out quite surprisingly positive (here the German PDF of the document from a transcript in the Bavarian State Archives). After this hymn of praise – which allows us a few insights into the thoughts of the good Mr Leybold – their release on probation on 20 December 1924 was only a matter of form.

December 20, 1924, after release

Many relevant documents relating to Hitler’s detention were considered lost for years until they were offered for sale in July 2010 an action prevented, however, by the State of Bavaria, by seizure.

Inmate Hitler on the warden’s list – healthy, 175 cm height, 77 kg weight A visiting card by Ludendorff and various other documents

As it was to be expected, after 1933 the Nazis made Hitler’s cell and prison a national shrine – with much fanfare and millions of postcards a “place of pilgrimage to the German youth” – in the words of Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach – where the hard time of the leader was to be honoured and kept in awe. [PDF in German by Manfred Deiler with pics] The city of Landsberg eventually crowned the adulation in 1937 she declared the room the “National Sanctuary Hitler Cell”.

  • Hitler Cell Monument
  • Postcard by Heinrich Hoffmann

Obviously, the US military government after 1945 wanted to erase the whole haunting affair as quickly as possible – and to make it clear to everyone where the madness had ultimately led, executed between 248 and 308 war criminals there (depending on the source), including Oswald Pohl, Head of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt, Otto Ohlendorf, commander of Einsatzgruppe D and Paul Blobel, the butcher of Babi Yar.

Graves of the War Criminals

Watch the video: Emil Maurice (May 2022).