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Hubert Gough

Hubert Gough


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Hubert Gough, a cavalry officer, led a division of the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front during 1914 and 1915. He became a corps commander early in 1916 and took part in the Battle of the Somme and the offensives at Arras and Ypres.

Commander-in-Chief, Sir Douglas Haig, regarded Gough as one of his best officers, but he was severely criticised by others for his over-confident offensive enthusiasm and his belief in cavalry attacks. Gough was blamed for the Fifth Army's collapse during the German Offensive in March 1918.

Replaced by General Sir William Birdwood, Gough did not hold command again until after the war. Gough was highly critical of the Versailles Treaty and was an active member of the Union of Democratic Control.

Sir Hubert Gough died in 1963.

It seems to me that the Peace Treaty can be viewed from two points of view, the moral and the purely utilitarian. From either it appears thoroughly bad, and it has failed and must continue to fail to reach any good result, such as all who fought in the war supposed we were to gain. We hoped to establish justice, fair-dealing between nations, and the honest keeping of promises; we thought to establish a good and lasting peace which would, of necessity, have been established on good will. The Peace Treaty has done nothing of the kind.


Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough

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Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough, (born Aug. 12, 1870, London—died March 18, 1963, London), World War I commander of the British 5th Army, which bore the brunt of the great German offensive in March 1918.

He joined the 16th Lancers in 1889 and served in the Tirah Expedition in India (1897) and in the South African War (1899–1902). He commanded the 3rd Cavalry Brigade in 1914 and opposed the use of force at the Curragh to compel Ulster to accept Home Rule.

In France, Gough became commander of the 5th Army on its formation (1916) and took part in the battles of the Somme (1916) and Ypres (1917), where he earned a reputation as a poor administrator and a hard driver—indifferent to the casualties his men suffered. In March 1918 his army was compelled to withdraw with considerable loss under heavy German pressure. Although his skillful handling of the battle led to the eventual stemming of the German advance, the government blamed him for temporary German successes and insisted on his removal. He retired in 1922 with the rank of general and received the award of the Knight Grand Cross of the Bath in 1937.

This article was most recently revised and updated by William L. Hosch, Associate Editor.


Third Battle of Ypres begins in Flanders

On July 31, 1917, the Allies launch a renewed assault on German lines in the Flanders region of Belgium, in the much-contested region near Ypres, during World War I. The attack begins more than three months of brutal fighting, known as the Third Battle of Ypres.

While the first and second battles at Ypres were attacks by the Germans against the Allied-controlled salient around Ypres—which crucially blocked any German advance to the English Channel—the third was spearheaded by the British commander in chief, Sir Douglas Haig. After the resounding failure of the Nivelle Offensive–named for its mastermind, the French commander Robert Nivelle–the previous May, followed by widespread mutinies within the French army, Haig insisted that the British should press ahead with another major offensive that summer. The aggressive and meticulously planned offensive, ostensibly aimed at destroying German submarine bases located on the north coast of Belgium, was in fact driven by Haig’s (mistaken) belief that the German army was on the verge of collapse, and would be broken completely by a major Allied victory.

After an opening barrage of some 3,000 guns, Haig ordered nine British divisions, led by Sir Hubert Gough’s 5th Army, to advance on the German lines near the Belgian village of Passchendaele on July 31 they were joined by six French divisions. In the first two days of the attacks, while suffering heavy casualties, the Allies made significant advances—in some sectors pushing the Germans back more than a mile and taking more than 5,000 German prisoners—if not as significant as Haig had envisioned. The offensive was renewed in mid-August, though heavy rains and thickening mud severely hampered the effectiveness of Allied infantry and artillery and prevented substantial gains over the majority of the summer and early fall.

Dissatisfied with his army’s gains by the end of August, Haig had replaced Gough with Herbert Plumer at the head of the attack after several small gains in September, the British were able to establish control over the ridge of land east of Ypres. Encouraged, Haig pushed Plumer to continue the attacks towards the Passchendaele ridge, some 10 kilometers from Ypres.

Thus the Third Battle of Ypres𠄺lso known as Passchendaele, for the village, and the ridge surrounding it, that saw the heaviest fighting𠄼ontinued into its third month, as the Allied attackers reached near-exhaustion, with few notable gains, and the Germans reinforced their positions in the region with reserve troops released from the Eastern Front, where Russia’s army was foundering amid internal turmoil. Unwilling to give up, Haig ordered a final three attacks on Passchendaele in late October. The eventual capture of the village, by Canadian and British troops, on November 6, 1917, allowed Haig to finally call off the offensive, claiming victory, despite some 310,000 British casualties, as opposed to 260,000 on the German side, and a failure to create any substantial breakthrough, or change of momentum, on the Western Front. Given its outcome, the Third Battle of Ypres remains one of the most costly and controversial offensives of World War I, representing𠄺t least for the British–the epitome of the wasteful and futile nature of trench warfare.


Gough History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name Gough is derived from the Welsh word "coch," which means "red." Gough was originally a nickname for a ruddy or red-complexioned person, which later became a hereditary surname. [1]

Iolo Goch or the Red ( fl. 1328-1405), a Welsh bard, whose real name is said to be Edward Llwyd, was Lord of Llechryd and resided at Coed Pantwn in Denbighshire. [2]

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Early Origins of the Gough family

The surname Gough was first found in Radnorshire (Welsh: Sir Faesyfed), a former historic county of mid- Wales, anciently part of the kingdom of Powys.

However, while the name is a well known Welsh name, we must look to England to find some of the first records in early rolls. Robert Gogh was listed in the Assize Rolls of Cheshire in 1287 and later in the Subsidy Rolls for Somerset. [3]

Again in Somerset, Robert Gogh was listed in the rolls there, 1 Edward III (during the first year of King Edward III's reign.) [4]

It was not until 1576, that we find Thomas Goughe listed in the Subsidy Rolls for Wales. [3]

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Early History of the Gough family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Gough research. Another 110 words (8 lines of text) covering the years 1528, 1556, 1570, 1559, 1560, 1605, 1681, 1605, 1591, 1629, 1591, 1679, 1642, 1660, 1660, 1610, 1661 and are included under the topic Early Gough History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Gough Spelling Variations

Although there are not an extremely large number Welsh surnames, there are an inordinately large number of spelling variations of those surnames. This variety of spellings began almost immediately after the acceptance of surnames within Welsh society. As time progressed, these old Brythonic names were eventually were recorded in English. This process was problematic in that many of the highly inflected sounds of the native language of Wales could not be properly captured in English. Some families, however, did decide to modify their own names to indicate a branch loyalty within the family, a religious adherence, or even a patriotic affiliation. The name Gough has seen various spelling variations: Gough, Goff, Gof, Goffe and others.

Early Notables of the Gough family (pre 1700)

Prominent amongst the family during the late Middle Ages was Sir Matthew Gough knighted in the French wars. John Gough, Gowghe, Gowgh, Gouge ( fl. 1528-1556), was an early English printer, stationer, and translator, first lived in Cheapside [London], "next to Paul's Gate, possibly in the house of John Rastell he afterwards moved into Lombard Street, using the sign of the mermaid in both places. " [2] John Gough (fl. 1570), was an English divine, "who seems not to have been of any university, was ordained deacon by Grindal, bishop of London, 14 Jan. 1559-1560. " [2] Stephen Goffe (Gough) C.O. (1605-1681), was a Royalist.
Another 184 words (13 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Gough Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Gough family to Ireland

Some of the Gough family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 58 words (4 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Gough migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Gough Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Mathew Gough, who settled in Virginia in 1635
  • Mathew Gough, who landed in Virginia in 1639 [5]
  • Elizabeth Gough, who landed in Maryland in 1659 [5]
  • Barnaby Gough, who arrived in Maryland in 1659 [5]
  • John Gough, who landed in New England in 1661 [5]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Gough Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • William, Gough Jr., who arrived in Georgia in 1733 [5]
  • Will Gough, who settled in Georgia in 1733 with his wife Mary and two sons and a daughter
Gough Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Miss Gough, who landed in New York, NY in 1817 [5]
  • Henry Gough, who landed in Texas in 1835 [5]
  • Janes Gough, aged 19, who arrived in New Orleans, La in 1839 [5]
  • Patrick Gough, aged 29, who arrived in New York, NY in 1839 [5]
  • C C Gough, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1850 [5]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Gough migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Gough Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Martin Gough, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Mary Gough, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
Gough Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Philip Gough, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1833
  • Mary Ann Gough, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1839
  • Miss. Bridget Gough, aged 9 who immigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Covenanter" departing from the port of Cork, Ireland but died on Grosse Isle in August 1847 [6]

Gough migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Gough Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Charles Gough, English convict from Bristol, who was transported aboard the "Adamant" on March 16, 1821, settling in New South Wales, Australia[7]
  • Sophia Gough, English convict from Worcester, who was transported aboard the "Amphitrite" on August 21, 1833, settling in New South Wales, Australia[8]
  • Ann Gough, English convict from Lancaster, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on December 14, 1835, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[9]
  • Mr. John Gough, English convict who was convicted in Warwick, Warwickshire, England for life, transported aboard the "Aurora" on 18th June 1835, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [10]
  • Mr. Thomas Gough, English convict who was convicted in Warwick, Warwickshire, England for life, transported aboard the "Aurora" on 18th June 1835, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [10]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Gough migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:


Seeking information about Robert Gough/Goff

I am looking for information on enslaved male born in c.1820, named Robert Gough/Goff. He lived in Buckingham County. He may have had a connection to a Holbrook family too. He had a Mulatto wife named Mary (possibly Harris). They had children - George, Ellen, possibly others.

Re: Seeking information about Robert Gough/Goff
Cara Jensen 20.07.2020 12:32 (в ответ на Hasani Gough)

Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!

We suggest that you review the FamilySearch research wiki on African American Resources for Virginia as well as the document Federal Records that Help Identify Former Slaves and Slave Owners .  We also suggest that you search the Virginia Museum of History & Culture’s Database of Virginia Slave Names .


Hubert De Le Poer Gough

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About Gen. Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough, GCB GCMG KCVO

General Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough, GCB, GCMG, KCVO (12 August 1870 – 18 March 1963), was a senior officer in the British Army, who commanded the British Fifth Army from 1916 to 1918 during the First World War.

He was born into an Anglo-Irish aristocratic family in Gurteen, County Waterford, Ireland,[1] the eldest son of General Sir Charles J.S. Gough, VC, GCB, nephew of General Sir Hugh H. Gough, VC, and brother of Brigadier General Sir John Edmund Gough, VC (the only family to ever win the Victoria Cross, the highest award for bravery, three times). He married Harriette Anastasia de la Poer, daughter of John William Poer, styled 17th Baron de la Poer, of Gurteen, County Waterford, formerly MP for County Waterford. Their daughter Myrtle Eleanore Gough married Major Eric Adlhelm Torlogh Dutton, CMG, CBE, in 1936.

Gough attended Eton College, and according to his autobiography "Soldiering On" he was terrible at Latin. But he was good at sports such as football and rugby. After leaving Eton, Gough gained entrance to the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst in 1888. He joined the 16th Lancers in 1889 and served in the Tirah campaign. Gough first became widely known for his command of a relief column during the siege of Ladysmith in the Second Boer War. His meeting with George Stuart White was widely portrayed.

From 1904 to 1906 he was an instructor at the Staff College and from December 1906 he commanded the 16th lancers. In 1911 he returned to Ireland as a brigadier-general commanding 3rd cavalry brigade, which included the 16th lancers, at the Curragh.

In March 1914 Gough was a leader in the Curragh Incident, in which a number of British Army officers said that they would rather resign rather than enforce the Government's plans to realise Irish home rule.

At the outbreak of war in August 1914, Gough was commanding a brigade and later commanded the 7th Division, known as "Gough's Mobile Army". A favourite of the British Commander-in-Chief, General Sir Douglas Haig, he experienced a meteoric rise through the ranks during the war. By the time of the Battle of Loos in September 1915, he was commanding I Corps and, at the start of the Battle of the Somme in July 1916, Gough was in charge of the Reserve Army, despite only being a lieutenant general.

At the end of October 1916, Gough's Reserve Army was renamed the Fifth Army. The 16th (Irish) Division and the 36th (Ulster) Division moved under his command. On 1 January 1917, he was promoted to Lieutenant General "for distinguished service in the field". In July 1917 during the Third Battle of Ypres although both divisions were exhausted after 13 days of moving heavy equipment under heavy shelling he ordered their battalions to advance to the east of Ypres through deep mud towards well fortified German positions left untouched by inadequate artillery preparation. By mid August, the 16th (Irish) had suffered over 4,200 casualties and the 36th (Ulster) had suffered almost 3,600 casualties, or more than 50% of their numbers. When he accused the troops in question of not being able to hold onto their gains because they “were Irish and did not like the enemy’s shelling”, Field Marshal Haig was critical of him for "playing the Irish card".

It was Gough's Fifth Army that bore the brunt of the German Operation Michael offensive on 21 March 1918 and the assumed failure of his army to hold the line and stem the German advance led to his dismissal. Andrew Roberts offers a more favourable assessment of Gough's contribution:

. . . the offensive saw a great wrong perpetrated on a distinguished British commander that was not righted for many years. Gough's Fifth Army had been spread thin on a forty-two-mile front lately taken over from the exhausted and demoralised French. The reason why the Germans did not break through to Paris, as by all the laws of strategy they ought to have done, was the heroism of the Fifth Army and its utter refusal to break. They fought a thirty-eight-mile rearguard action, contesting every village, field and, on occasion, yard . . . With no reserves and no strongly defended line to its rear, and with eighty German divisions against fifteen British, the Fifth Army fought the Somme offensive to a standstill on the Ancre, not retreating beyond Villers-Bretonneux . . .

Other historians, such as Les Carlyon, concur in holding the opinion that Gough was unfairly dealt with following the Michael Offensive, but also regard Gough's performance during the Great War in generally unflattering terms, citing documented and repeated failings in planning, preparation, comprehension of the battle space, and a lack of empathy with the common soldier.

In 1919 he was the head of the Allied Military Mission to the Baltic States (see United Baltic Duchy). He retired as a general in 1922.

From 1936 until 1943, he was honorary colonel of the 16th/5th The Queen's Royal Lancers, and President of the Irish Servicemen's Shamrock Club in Park Lane, London W.1.

His book, The Fifth Army, defended his record as commander in 1918.

Gough died in London on 18 March 1963, aged 92. He suffered from bronchial pneumonia for a month before he died, but it is unclear whether this was the cause of death.


Gough, Fifth Army in Spring 1918

I've been reading some articles and online content about the performance of General Hubert Gough, the commander of the BEF's Fifth Army and his command and actions in the led and up and through the German Spring 1918 offensive.

If Gough was removed from Fifth Army command by January 1918 in the fallout after Third Ypers and replaced, and assuming the Germans still launch Operation Michael relatively as OTL, barring minor tactical changes taking into account a changed Fifth Army commander, could the German offensive have been less successful in the amount of territory lost/casualties taken/equipment lost (inc. the OTL significant loss of light railway and logistical equipment)?

I'm assuming the larger structural issues (both positive and negative) of both the German and BEF forces of early 1918 remain largely unchanged.

Gough was the made scapegoat, led by Lloyd-George in OTL for Fifth Army's performance and was criticized by contemporary histories such as Bean as well as modern writings on the matter and clouding the different sources and histories so I'm trying to gauge the influence of the man himself on Fifth Army's performance.

Ian_W

You might want to look at the Sheffield paper in this

I've got a fair amount of sympathy for Gough - he's trying to hold against the enemy main effort, which has seen them concentrate much more heavy artillery than he has, while dealing with units that have been worn away during a national manpower crisis. Oh yes, and he's holding a much longer front than the divisions he has should be, as well.

And he still manages to keep his command intact, trading space until the enemy outruns their supply lines, and then is able to counter-attack.

It could have been done worse.

Colonel Grubb

You might want to look at the Sheffield paper in this

I've got a fair amount of sympathy for Gough - he's trying to hold against the enemy main effort, which has seen them concentrate much more heavy artillery than he has, while dealing with units that have been worn away during a national manpower crisis. Oh yes, and he's holding a much longer front than the divisions he has should be, as well.

And he still manages to keep his command intact, trading space until the enemy outruns their supply lines, and then is able to counter-attack.

It could have been done worse.

Coulsdon Eagle

Cryhavoc101

A better change for 5th Army would be Lloyd George removed from No 10

Poisionous little power grabbing troll

Without him their is likely no manpower crisis or at least a smaller one.

Colonel Grubb

- I know its Wikipedia, but it is sourced from Farrar-Hockley, General Sir Anthony (1975). Goughie: the Life of General Sir Hubert Gough CBG, GCMG, KCVO. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon.

Not that the injection of the 20th and 50th might have made much difference especially given the time frames and other factors involved.


Hubert Gough - History

Valencia and Market, 1945, when the intersection was still the heart of a now-forgotten neighborhood called "The Hub."

Market at Valencia (tracks turn left onto Valencia), Sept. 14, 1945.

Photo: SFDPW, courtesy C.R.collection

The Hub, looking east on Market from apx. Octavia, 1940s.

Market Street west from Van Ness, c. 1932, into the heart of the Hub neighborhood.

Looking east on Buchanan towards Market, c. 1883.

Hermann Street east from Buchanan towards Market and Laguna, 1932., San Francisco Teachers College (later San Francisco State College) at left.

Photo: San Francisco History Center, SF Public Library, courtesy C.R. collection

Market and Haight intersection, c. 1900. Mint Hill still prominent on north side of Market at top of hill.

Photo: San Francisco History Center, SF Public Library, courtesy C.R. collection

Same intersection, June 19, 1919.

For many decades beginning in the 1880s through the 1950s, the intersection of Market, Valencia, Haight and Gough Streets was popularly known as the “Hub,” because no fewer than four streetcar lines converged there either on their way downtown or outbound to outlying neighborhoods. The Municipal Railway and the Market Street Railway ran on four tracks on Market Street the 9 Valencia ran on Valencia and the 7 Haight on Haight Street. The intersection was a busy transit hub, with streetcar lines radiating out from it along Market St., Valencia and Haight Streets. Over the course of decades, the intersection and surrounding neighborhood remained a transit hub even as streets were reconfigured and streetcar lines were replaced with buses.

The name “Hub” eventually came to stand for the surrounding neighborhood as well as the intersection and was well-known to residents of the City. By the 1930s the neighborhood was alive with thriving businesses and a surrounding residential population. Many well-known businesses located here because of the ease of public transportation and the central location, including the Hub pharmacy (for many years San Francisco’s only 24-hour pharmacy), Hub Bowling and the McRoskey Mattress Company. McRoskey is the only business from the Hub area that survives to this day.

McRoskey Mattress Company, 1920s, when Gough Street did not yet go through Market to Mission.

Photo: Courtesy McRoskey Mattress Company

Used car lot on Market in 1939 where Gough now crosses through.

Used car lot on Market Street where Gough now runs to Mission Street,circa 1939. Note the sign in background: Hub Bowling, 1675 Market Street.

Photos: Courtesy McRoskey Mattress Company

Gough at Market, c. 1907, temporary structures still abound after quake.

Work crew improving streetcar tracks on Market Street near Octavia, August 6, 1930.

Another angle of the same work project, August 6, 1930.

Market Street being rebuilt in May 1931.

The famous Fillmore West at Van Ness and Market in 1970 when the Grateful Dead show was being advertised.

Jefferson Airplane show at Fillmore West, October 1968.

Image: courtesy Tim Drescher

Carousel Ballroom before its renaming at Fillmore West.

Photo: provenance unknown, via Facebook

Aretha Franklin performing at the Carousel Ballroom, early 1960s.

Photo: provenance unknown, via Facebook

The name faded from public memory after the conversion of the Valencia and Haight street lines to bus service and the removal of two streetcar tracks from Market Street with the dissolution of the Market Street Railway, all in the 1940s. The neighborhood went into decline beginning in the late 1940s.

Building the Gough Street extension, 1949.

Photo: San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library

Construction linking Market Street with Mission, South Van Ness Extension, 1930s.

Photo: San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library

South Van Ness extension under construction, southerly view from Mission and Otis, Sept. 15, 1931.

Photo: SFDPW, courtesy C.R. collection

Mission and 12th Street, 1912.

Today the reference to the “Hub” is largely forgotten except to history buffs, but a movement to revive the name in reference to a larger area with the intersection as its nexus has begun as the neighborhood becomes a part of the revival of the area in general and a reconfiguration of the intersection under the Market and Octavia Plan. Several landmark structures populate the neighborhood today as it is poised for revival.


Gough was born the eldest son of General Sir Charles John Stanley Gough , VC , GCB and raised in Eton and Sandhurst . In 1889 he joined the 16th Lancers as a lieutenant . He was a participant in the Tirah campaign in British India 1897-98. He then attended Staff College Camberley , but was recalled prematurely to South Africa when the Second Boer War broke out there in 1899 . Gough was first widely known as the leader of a mounted advance detachment of the column that terrified the trapped British garrison under George Stuart White during the siege of Ladysmith . In the battle of Blood River Poort he suffered a defeat by superior Boer troops and was briefly captured, but this did not seriously damage his reputation. From 1904 to 1906 he was an instructor at Staff College and was then given command of the 16th Lancers . In 1911 he was transferred to Curragh , Ireland , as Brigadier General , where he commanded the 3rd Cavalry Brigade. Here he was involved in the so-called " Curragh incident " in March 1914 .

When the First World War broke out in August 1914, he continued to command the 3rd Cavalry Brigade, but was soon promoted to major general and took over the 2nd Cavalry Division during the First Battle of Flanders . From April to July 1915 he was temporarily commander of the 7th Infantry Division and was then appointed as lieutenant general to commander of the 1st Corps , with which he fought in the Battle of Loos . In May 1916 he was given command of the newly formed reserve army , which took over part of the front during the Battle of the Somme in July 1916. In October 1916, the reserve army was renamed the 5th Army . With this he took part in the Third Battle of Flanders in 1917, after the failure of which he came under fire. In March 1918 his army was so badly affected during the German "Michael" offensive that it had to be disbanded and Gough was released from command. Douglas Haig later admitted that he had made Gough the scapegoat for the overwhelmingly accomplished German break-in.

In 1919 Gough was head of the Allied Military Mission in the Baltic States. This was his last active role and in 1922 he resigned from the military as a general. Gough was an avowed opponent of the Versailles Treaty and became an active member of the pacifist Union of Democratic Control . From 1936 to 1943 he was Colonel of Honor of the 16th / 5th The Queen's Royal Lancers . In 1939 he was temporarily reactivated as a colonel and head of an area command of the Home Guard and ended his service a second time in 1942.


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