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The Ins and Outs and 'Idiots' of Greek Democracy

The Ins and Outs and 'Idiots' of Greek Democracy



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Greece, or more specifically the city state of Athens, is considered to be the birthplace of democracy. Athenian democracy is well-documented and served as a model for the democracies of other Greek city states. Although democracy is the de jure system of government in much of the world today, it is much different from that which was practiced by the ancient Greeks. In fact, some features of Athenian democracy might even be considered to be undemocratic by modern observers.

The Birth of Democracy

The word ‘democracy’ is derived from the Greek ‘demokratia’, which is often translated to mean ‘rule of the people’. Prior to the birth of democracy, Athens was ruled by an aristocracy. Around the beginning of the 6 th century BC, the Athenian statesman Solon instituted a series of reforms that laid the foundations of Athenian democracy. Nevertheless, it was only around the end of the same century that democracy was established, thanks to the reforms of Cleisthenes . It was Cleisthenes who broke the monopoly of the aristocrats on the political decision-making process by reorganizing the Athenians into tribes according to where they lived, rather than according to their wealth.

Two other individuals who made important contributions to the development of Athenian democracy were Ephialtes and Pericles, both of whom lived during the 5 th century, when the Athenians successfully repelled the invasions launched by the Achaemenid Empire . It was due to these victories that the poorer segments of Athenian society began to demand a greater share of political power and this was granted by the reforms of Ephialtes and Pericles during the 460s BC.

The Three Bodies of Government – and the Idiotai

Athenian democracy consisted of three main bodies of governance – the Ekklesia, the Boule, and the Dikasteria. The first of these, known also as the Assembly, was the sovereign governing body of Athens. This institution is similar to parliaments in modern democracy. Unlike today’s parliaments , however, members of the Athenian Ekklesia were not elected and any adult male citizen could and was expected to participate in its meetings. Those eligible to attend the Ekklesia but refused to do so were labeled as ‘idiotai’ (which meant ‘private citizen’), from which the word ‘idiot’ is derived. Considering the negative meaning of the word today, it has been assumed that the Athenians did not view such individuals favorably. By modern standards, the Ekklesia was an exclusive club as the participation of women, slaves, and foreign residents was prohibited.

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The Ekklesia in Athens convened on a hill called the Pnyx. ( costas1962 / Adobe)

The second institution, the Boule, is known also as the Council of Five Hundred. It consisted of 500 men (50 from each of the 10 Athenian tribes) who were selected by lot. The chosen men were required to serve on this council for a year. If the Ekklesia was the legislative branch of the government, the Boule was its executive. The Boule handled most of the practical work of governance and therefore met on a daily basis. The most important job of the Boule was to decide on the issues to be presented to the Ekklesia for debate.

The last institution was the Dikasteria, or the popular courts, which served as the judicial branch of the Athenian city state. Like the Boule, the Dikasteria had 500 members (known as jurors) who were selected by lot. Only male citizens above the age of 30 were eligible to be jurors. It was the demos themselves (male citizens who were above the age of 18) who brought cases before the court and argued for the prosecution and the defense. Verdicts and sentences were passed by majority rule.

Diagram representing the constitution of the Athenians in the 4th century BC. (Mathieugp / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Critics of the New Democracy

Finally, it may be said that Athenian democracy is often regarded to be a great development in the history of Western civilization and the founders of modern democracy claim to be their descendants. Nevertheless, the democracy practiced by Athens was not without its critics, even during its heyday. As an example, the flaws of democracy were pointed out by Plato and Aristotle, both of whom laid the foundations of Western philosophy. Aristotle, in his Politics, for instance, wrote that democracy is the perverse form of a regime called polity. The former is the rule by the many for the benefit of the few, whereas the latter is the rule by the many for the benefit of the many. Criticisms of democracy are found also in Plato’s The Republic . In this work, Plato wrote that as offices are distributed by lot in a democracy, many governmental positions would be held by those without the necessary ability or knowledge. Additionally, Plato criticized the democratic individual as being without shame or self-discipline, as his desire for freedom, to do what he wants, compels him to pursue all sorts of bodily desires excessively.

Manuscript containing fragments of Plato's Republic. (Bender235 / Public Domain )


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Introducing Corinth , the Greek City-State of Trade

Since the ancient Greek city-state of Corinth was located in a coastal region, they took advantage of plenty of cultural and trade opportunities. In the ancient Greek world, Corinth earned a great deal of respect as a city-state that contributed a lot to the advancement of culture, art, literature, and business. In this article, you will learn more about the government and people of Corinth, including the education of young boys.

While Sparta followed an oligarchy and Athens dabbled in democracy, the people of Corinth established a monarchy, which means that the land was ruled by a king. With the help of many advisors, the government of Corinth was able to provide numerous solutions for the issues that cities of today still face. For instance, Corinth was plagued by unemployment at one time. Corinth came up with the plan to establish a sweeping public works program that was rather successful in its day.

People found work that solved other issues that the city had to deal with, such as constructing new aqueducts that would aid in providing additional outlets for drinking water. When foreign money started to appear throughout the city-state, Corinth created its own collection of coins. They even made a profit, demanding that traders had to exchange their coins for Corinth’s coinage at a bank established in the city. They charged a fee for this service. It was ideas like this that gave the Corinthians a good reputation when it came to money.

While Corinthian schools educated their boys in the arts and sciences, they did not compare to the education that Athenian boys received. As kids, they received an education that started at home, but when they turned around seven years old, they were sent to a day school located close to the home. It was here that they learned the ins and outs of drama, poetry, writing, math, science, accounting, reading, and playing the flute. If the child belonged to a family of great wealth, then they were sent to a school that provided higher education. All boys were also expected to enter military school for at least two years.

3 Facts About Ancient Corinth

1. Legend has it that the city-state was founded by Corinthos, who is noted as a descendant of the god Helios (the Sun). Another myth are attached to the existence of the ancient city, including ties to a goddess named Ephyra, who was the daughter of Oceanus (a titan).

2. Just before the end of the Mycenaean period, the Dorians got the bright idea to make a home in Corinth. The first time they attempted to settle, the effort failed. However, the second time around proved successful , thanks to their leader Aletes who traveled an alternate route , leaving from Antirio and leading the Dorians around the Corinthian Gulf.

3. Controlling the trade in western Mediterranean was essential for the wealth of Corinth to continue. During the late 6th century, the Corinthians attempted to maintain their authority over the commercial practices in the region by acting as a mediator between Athens, Thebes and Sparta when conflicts emerged.


Orson Scott Card's long history of homophobia

By Aja Romano
Published May 7, 2013 9:41PM (EDT)

Orson Scott Card

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This article originally appeared on The Daily Dot.

During the next six months, you're going to be hearing the name Orson Scott Card a lot. Card is the author of Ender's Game, one of the greatest works of science fiction and children's literature ever written. In November, an all-star film production of Ender's Game is hitting theaters, and along with the buzz, there's sure to be lots of controversy.

Why? Because in addition to being one of the most critically acclaimed writers of science fiction, Card, or OSC, as he's dubbed in sci-fi circles, is also one of the most openly bigoted. Card is the great-great-grandson of Mormon icon Brigham Young, and his politics are deeply linked to his lifelong Mormonism. Card has been openly railing against what he calls "the homosexual agenda" for decades.

Earlier this year, DC Comics found itself embroiled in a public relations fiasco after it hired Card to write its latest Superman adventure. Already rather beleaguered on the subject of diversity, DC caused a public outcry when it announced the anti-gay Card would be scripting a story about the American icon, and finally had to put the issue on hold indefinitely.

But Card has been in the science fiction business for decades, and has become one of the powerful and influential authors in the industry. He is the only author in history to win sci-fi's two biggest awards, the Hugo and the Nebula, back-to-back: for 1985's Ender's Game and its sequel Speaker for the Dead. He's the winner of the John W. Campbell Award, the World Fantasy Award, and the Locus Award—nearly every prestigious sci-fi/fantasy award on the planet. He runs a yearly "boot camp" for sci-fi writers, teaches at Southern Virginia University, and serves as a judge for the annual sci-fi Writers of the Future awards.

In 2008, the esteemed Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) awarded Card its Margaret A. Edwards Award, annually given to an author whose lifetime has been spent "helping adolescents become aware of themselves and addressing questions about their role and importance in relationships, society, and in the world." The decision inevitably caused controversy, but YALSA argued that Card's personal views should not diminish the impact of the Ender's series, which is stridently anti-war and progressive in its depiction of intergalactic cultural clashes and the societal cost of violence.

But Card remains a polarizing figure in a corner of the publishing industry that's long been criticized for its commitment to upholding a mostly male, mostly white standard of excellence. It matters that when Orson Scott Card talks, the world of sci-fi is listening because so often what Orson Scott Card has to say overshadows the iconic Ender and its sequels.

Despite being a Democrat, Card also has stridently right-wing political views that verge on neo-conservative. He also hates fanfiction, even though he frequently writes it. And that's just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the paradoxical mishmash of Cardian beliefs that might provoke some brain-scouring and heated debate among sci-fi fans near you as the buzz for Ender's Game starts to grow.

OSC and the “Homosexual Agenda”

In 2008, Card lamented that he had for so long been labeled a "homophobe" because of his stated positions on homosexuality. Here's a run-down on what he said. Notably, he's become far more vocal and politically active in the fight against gay marriage in recent years.

1990: Card argued that states should keep sodomy laws on the books in order to punish unruly gays--presumably implying that the fear of breaking the law ought to keep most gay men in the closet where they belonged.

2004: He claimed that most homosexuals are the self-loathing victims of child abuse, who became gay “through a disturbing seduction or rape or molestation or abuse.”

2008: In 2008, Card published his most controversial anti-gay screed yet, in the Mormon Times, where he argued that gay marriage "marks the end of democracy in America," that homosexuality was a "tragic genetic mixup," and that allowing courts to redefine marriage was a slippery slope towards total homosexual political rule and the classifying of anyone who disagreed as "mentally ill:"

A term that has mental-health implications (homophobe) is now routinely applied to anyone who deviates from the politically correct line. How long before opposing gay marriage, or refusing to recognize it, gets you officially classified as "mentally ill"

Remember how rapidly gay marriage has become a requirement. When gay rights were being enforced by the courts back in the '70s and '80s, we were repeatedly told by all the proponents of gay rights that they would never attempt to legalize gay marriage.

It took about 15 minutes for that promise to be broken. …

If a court declared that from now on, "blind" and "sighted" would be synonyms, would that mean that it would be safe for blind people to drive cars?

No matter how sexually attracted a man might be toward other men, or a woman toward other women, and no matter how close the bonds of affection and friendship might be within same-sex couples, there is no act of court or Congress that can make these relationships thesame as the coupling between a man and a woman.

This is a permanent fact of nature.

Card went on to advocate for, literally, a straight people's insurrection against a pro-gay government:

[W]hen government is the enemy of marriage, then the people who are actually creating successful marriages have no choice but to change governments, by whatever means is made possible or necessary. Regardless of law, marriage has only one definition, and any government that attempts to change it is my mortal enemy. I will act to destroy that government and bring it down.

2009: He joined the board for anti-gay lobby The National Organization for Marriage, which was created to pass California's notorious Proposition 8, banning gay marriage.

2012: He supported his home state North Carolina's constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage by arguingthat gay marriage "will be the bludgeon [The Left] use to make sure that it becomes illegal to teach traditional values in the schools."

Homophobic Subtext in Card's Writing

While subtext is a tricky thing to address, Card's subtext is often, well, text.

Hamlet's Father: In 2008, Card wrote this hilariously painful Shakespearean fanfic that posits that Hamlet's father was a pedophile who molested most of the royal court, with the implication that the abuse made them all gay. OSC joked that he left Shakespeare's version "in shreds on the floor." You don't say.

The Homecoming Saga. This book is Card's fanfic retelling of the Book of Mormon—in space. It also features a gay male character who gets married for the good of society, because he recognizes that procreation is his duty. The book espouses the joy and love of his relationship with his wife, though, notably, Card doesn't attempt to "cure" the gay man, and sex continues to be a chore for him.

Ender in Exile.In this book, as in several others, Card sets up a situation where civilization is in the early stages of formation, which means it's largely dependant on high fertility rates and stable, monogamous heteronormativity. This sets the stage for Card to spend time rhapsodizing about the benefits of straight sex. Ad nauseum. "In between things actually happening it's ALL lecturing about marriages and heterosexuality to the point of propaganda and driving me insane," writes one Goodreads reviewer about the book.

Songmaster. Songmaster was Card's attempt to show that he could write fairly about gay people—more specifically, gay men, since his writing seems to pay little attention to lesbians. However, Card's well-meaning (sort of) attempt at depicting homosexual love is muddied by the creepy overtones. The main gay love story features a young man who was groomed to be mostly homosexual in a pederasty-based society similar to Ancient Greece. He falls in love with a 15-year-old castrati.

To make things worse, the 15-year-old has the body of a10-year-old. To make things even worse, when they finally have sex, the 15-year-old in a 10-year-old's body loses his virginity, only to nearly die because of a plot point that leaves him unable to have sex ever again. Card addressed Songmaster in his 1990 essay, and described the relationship as a "mutually self-destructive path":

What the novel offers is a treatment of characters who share, between them, a forbidden act that took place because of hunger on one side, compassion on the other, and genuine love and friendship on both parts. I was not trying to show that homosexuality was "beautiful" or "natural"—in fact, sex of any kind is likely to be "beautiful" only to the participants, and it is hard to make a case for the naturalness of such an obviously counter-evolutionary trend as same-sex mating.

So basically, Card wrote a novel whose main plot point involves punishing homosexual sex, in the guise of identifying with mostly gay men. Did we mention the older lover was also in a straight relationship? With a kid? Once again, reproduction trumps all.

Orson Scott Card and Fanfiction

In 1989, Orson Scott Card wrote a story called "The Originist." It was a work of Isaac Asimov fanfiction, published in an anthology alongside other Asimov fanfics. Card later explained that although fanfiction is terrible and unimaginative, he wanted to write it to prove how much better his fanfiction was than everyone else's fanfiction. In the 1990 anthology Map in the Mirror, Card first expostulates that "Written science fiction has an author-driven audience. The real science fiction audience doesn't want to read [works written by one author in another author's universe]." He then goes on to tell how he gleefully jumped at the chance to write Asimov fanfic:

[F]or this one anthology, Dr. Asimov was allowing the participants to set stories within his own closely-held fictional universes. Suddenly I was sixteen years old again and I remembered the one story I wanted so badly to read, the one that Asimov had never written.

Card explains that even though he has laid down the law regarding franchised works and other forms of fanwork, the rule doesn't apply to him "because I had a compelling story to tell."

Card also went on to write the novel tie-in for the franchise The Abyss.

In 2004, he went even further, bluntly stating on his website that "The time to write fan fiction is 'never,'" and that "to write fiction using my characters is morally identical to moving into my house without invitation and throwing out my family."

In a post-Fifty Shades publishing environment, however, Card has rapidly thawed out. Last year he hosted a fanfiction contest and told the Wall Street Journal that "Every piece of fan fiction is an ad for my book. What kind of idiot would I be to want that to disappear?"

Taking Card at his word, then, we are happy to direct you to our favorite repositories of Ender's Game fanfiction on the Internet. Enjoy the gay, gay slash fanfiction—or write some of your own.

Ender's Game fanfiction at AdultFanfiction.net. Highlight: "Ender is forced to pleasure his brother, Peter. Routine, dismissed in the face of desire. Two wills, pitted in a game of lust and control."

Ender's Game fanfiction at Fanfiction.net. Highlight: "Ender encounters Alai at night. Boy/boy, but the fluffy sort, with conversation."

The ins and outs of Card's bibliographical representation of gay men may not be relevant to everyone. But with Card already taking center stage this year for the DC comics fiasco, and the first trailer for Ender's Game dropping today, soon a great number of people are going to be revisiting their childhoods, and revisiting the views of one of their favorite authors in the process.

Whether you think a writer's works should speak for themselves, or whether no great work can be read without context, between now and November, you're likely to have no shortage of debate around sci-fi's most hotly debated author.


Michigan residents take Mediterranean cruise into history

ATHENS, Greece -- No matter how many photographs you've seen of the Parthenon, nothing prepares you for standing face-to-face with that much history.

Even with a crane and scaffolding from a 30-year restoration, this 2,500-year-old symbol of Greek democracy has just the right amount of cracks and crumbling, the ideal shade of discoloration on the stone. The design defies modern engineering, our guide explained, with slight curves in the floor and columns adding to the optical illusion of perfection.
A visit to the idyllic Parthenon atop the hilltop Acropolis in downtown Athens was just one morning on a 12-day Mediterranean cruise taken last fall by 41 members of the Greater Grand Rapids Ski Club, whose members hail from across Michigan. We also marveled at the ruins of Pompeii, Italy, strolled the columned streets of the ancient metropolis of Ephesus in Turkey and bargained in the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul.

"The nicest part is the city where we were staying traveled with us," said club president Bob Nicholas.


The world standard in knowledge since 1768

For more than 75 years, Pluto was regarded as the ninth planet. In 2006 its size, icy composition, and eccentric orbit led astronomers to reclassify it as a dwarf planet. This resulted in an outcry from the public, who became protective of a ball of ice located some 3.7 billion miles from the Sun.

Named for the Greek goddess of discord, this dwarf planet certainly caused a hubbub when its discovery was announced in 2005. It was so close to Pluto in size that it led the International Astronomical Union to reconsider and eventually revoke Pluto’s status as the ninth planet.

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SUBSCRIBE NOW News 2 Breaking News

NASHVILLE, Tenn. (WKRN) — As Tennessee celebrates it’s 225th birthday, News 2 has been taking a closer look at the people, places and events that have shaped our great state.

Recently, News 2 spoke with the man who literally wrote the book on the ins and outs of the Tennessee State Capitol. Dr. Wayne Moore shared his insider knowledge with Nikki.

While they walked around the Capitol, he pointed out little-known facts about the historic center point of our state.

Dr. Moore is the former Assistant State Archivist and has devoted his career to learning everything there is to know about Tennessee history.

“This is the oldest working statehouse of all 50 states in America,” Moore said. “And when this building was built, everyone in state government was located here and all the functions of state government were housed here.”

Nashville wasn’t always home to the capitol. Previously, it had been moved around from Knoxville to Murfreesboro and even Kingston. Nashville eventually became its final destination.

“It was here in Nashville in the 1830s, and they wanted it to stay here,” Moore said. “So the mayor and municipal leaders of Nashville bought this property as the highest point in Nashville – perfect site for a grand State Capitol.”

It came at a price unheard of in Nashville real estate today. “They bought it for $30,000 and gave it to the state free, $1, I think to build the Capitol here,” Moore said.

William Strickland, an architect from Philadelphia, was selected to take on the task of designing and building it. Strickland apprenticed under the masterminds who built the U.S. Capitol.

Moore said the Tennessee Capitol’s Greek-inspired shape came from a time when many government leaders saw Greece as the home of democracy. And what better place to highlight democracy than in Tennessee?

“So it’s a very vibrant, active democracy, and Tennesseans are kind of in the forefront of that,” Moore said. “The state was much more important in 1840s and 50s, even than it is today. And, it was the home of Andrew Jackson, a lot of national leaders.

The stone that gives the Capitol its gravitas came from a quarry in Nashville’s own backyard.

“There was a quarry that belonged to a man named Samuel Watkins. Watkins college is still around here in Nashville. And he, for a few thousand dollars, allowed the state to quarry from that site,” he continued, “And they built the first paved road in Nashville to haul it up here to the hill to start building.”

Constructing the stone took some major expertise on Strickland’s part. The Capitol features a tower weighing in at 4,000 tons and 18-foot stone piers.

The Capitol also houses several massive chandeliers, originally fueled by gas and containing up to 48 burners. Today the lights run on electricity.

“Strickland had to do it right or this building wouldn’t be here today. This building will be here 200 years from now,” Moore said. “It’s a very, very solid, permanent structure.”

Unfortunately, the labor used to build the Capitol came at a great price.

“Some of the anonymous people who built this thing, they used a lot of convicts from the prison, which was also right down Charlotte, across from Watkins’ property,” Moore said. “They used a lot of enslaved individuals that did the quarrying, that leveled this hill off before they started building on it. They did a lot of the stonework.”

Dr. Moore said it’s important to remember the forced labor and sacrifice that went into constructing the Capitol.

“[It] took a lot of hands to build this building. Not all [were] getting paid for it.”

Another dark cloud over the Capitol’s history is that Strickland died in the process of creating his masterpiece.

“Strickland, his health starts to deteriorate in 1854, and he must have known it was coming because in the appropriation in this building from the legislature in that year, they put money in there for a tomb for him, for the architect,” Moore said. “He dies in April of ‘54 and he’s buried in the porch just outside that window.”

Strickland is not the only person whose tomb is housed within the Capitol walls. It’s also a final resting place for Samuel Morgan, the chairman of the building commission. President James K. Polk and his wife are also buried on the Capitol grounds.

Once the Capitol building was complete, finishing the landscaping surrounding the building had to be put on hold, due to the Civil War.

“The war breaks out in 󈨁 and Nashville falls to the federal army in 󈨂,” Moore said. “This becomes basically a fort. The Union Army fortifies the hill. They build a palisade around it. They put cannons up here. They expected the Confederate Army to attack Nashville to try to retake it at some point.”

Some of the war’s remnants remain at the Capitol today.

Dr. Moore pointed, “You’ve got Union troops quartered here. There’s graffiti up in the towers still from Union soldiers with a lot of time on their hands, just scribbling.”

As Tennessee rings in its 225 th year, the state will forever be indebted to the love and labor put into creating the state capitol. A structure sturdy enough to house the men and women who lead the state for 225 more years and beyond.

Copyright 2021 Nexstar Media Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.


2. Voter suppression

Huge turnout in the 2020 election was all the more impressive given barriers to voting. “We have seen this cycle an effort by the Republican party to make it harder, wherever possible, to vote – especially for black and minority populations,” Bassin said.

He added: “I don’t know of another advanced democracy in the world where one of the two major political parties has invested in voter suppression as a core strategy.”

Among the tactics on display were inaccurate purges of citizens from voter rolls, Trump’s active undermining of the US Postal Service, and malicious robocalls in areas with large black populations such as Flint, Michigan.

The downtown Harris county clerk’s office in Houston, Texas, which was banned from serving as a mail ballot drop-off site after Governor Greg Abbott issued an order limiting each county to one site. Photograph: Callaghan O’Hare/Reuters

One of the most egregious examples of voter suppression this cycle was in Florida. In 2018 Floridians handed back the right to vote to those with felony convictions, technically welcoming 1.4 million people back into democratic participation.

Florida’s Republicans immediately set about undermining the will of the electorate, putting in place a bureaucratic maze that former felons had to negotiate before they could vote. It was so convoluted that almost 900,000 people were still disenfranchised on election day – including about one in every six black Floridians of voting age.

Combatting voter suppression is central to HR1, the democracy reform bill championed by the Democrats in Congress. But for the past 245 days it has been stymied in the Senate by Mitch McConnell, the Republican majority leader, and pending two runoff elections in Georgia he is likely to continue to be a roadblock.

In that case focus is likely to shift over the next two years to the US justice department which has become virtually inactive in this area under Trump. Under Biden, the DoJ can be expected to re-engage, enforcing access to voting and prosecuting election-law violations.


ANTIFA PUBLIC ENEMY NO. 1

Ngô was a student journalist at Portland State University tasked with working on election night in 2016. He said what he saw shocked him.

He described how rioters descended upon downtown Portland, with their faces covered and "dressed head-to-toe in black." They carried bats, crowbars and hammers and were "just destroying the he-- out of the place."

"That was shocking then, and I say that now and it’s kind of, that’s just another, any day in Portland today," he said. "The response from the public at that time was to excuse it. They thought that it was [a] completely legitimate response because of fear and anger over what they thought was not a legitimate election."

He described hearing at the time that Trump’s election "was the first step toward ascendant fascism and the rise of a totalitarian regime in the U.S."

"These extremist, radical, unfounded ideas were given space to propagate in our papers of legacy, in our homes and. through broadcast and radio, and of course to online news sites," Ngô said. "That helped to really radicalize the left, in my opinion."

Ngô’s resolve to cover Antifa "became more clear and focused" from 2017 through 2018, when he began to notice discrepancies in what he was seeing at riots versus what was being reported, he said.

Antifa members and counter-protesters gathering during a right-wing August 2017 rally at Martin Luther King Jr. Park in Berkeley, California. (AMY OSBORNE/AFP/Getty Images, File)

"After every riot that was occurring in Portland and Seattle, the coverage from the local press was not the honest picture about who these masked militants actually were," he said.

Ngô continued: "The way they were described, they were lionized and described essentially as heroes who are protecting their communities because police don’t protect people, because police are racist and transphobic and homophobic."

There grew to be a narrative that it was "up to the people to protect their own."

"And that's what these people are doing – protecting communities from neo-Nazis and White supremacists and the KKK," he said. "That’s the story that the public was being told."

He continued his reporting on the Antifa insurrection for years. But as time went on, his name and face became more well-known among the crowds. His writing and reporting style, he said, helped to put him on their radar.

Andy Ngo covered in an unknown substance after unidentified Rose City Antifa members attacked him in 2019 in Portland, Ore. (Moriah Ratner/Getty Images, File)

"I was challenging the narrative that they had, the dominant narrative that they had within both the local press and therefore in the national press, as well," he said.

In 2019, he was attacked by a mob of masked Antifa members and had to be hospitalized, where he learned his brain was hemorrhaging, he wrote in "Unmasked."

But even after Ngô’s assault, some people in the public and the media criticized him, or questioned his intentions or whether his injuries were as bad as he was making them seem.

"As I watched him stream a close-up of his bloody face to more than a million people, it seemed like a defining moment in a new kind of media career," wrote a Buzzfeed reporter who was with Ngô at the time of his assault.

The reporter described how Ngô was chronicling his attack and its aftermath on Twitter and through videos, even while he was in the hospital.

He also noted that despite criticisms that Ngô would "provoke people," the attack appeared unprovoked.

WARNING: THE FOLLOWING CONTAINS EXPLICIT LANGUAGE

Nonetheless, amid a flood of new and continuing media attention, people came forward with claims that Ngô "inflates" or "misrepresents" events for his own benefit.

"[I]t would be a mistake to think this violence came out of some vacuum-sealed ideological intolerance toward conservatives. Ngo has been building to a dramatic confrontation with the Portland far left for months, his star rising along with the severity of the encounters," the Buzzfeed article adds. It notes that Ngô’s Twitter bio at one point stated, "Hated by Antifa." It no longer features those words.

The report continues: "The man’s literal brand is that anti-fascists are violent and loathe him."

Speaking to Fox News in late March, Ngô said he felt that his history with Antifa should not disqualify him from covering the topic. He acknowledged it has been "hard not to be treated as a colleague by people who work in this industry."

When Fox News asked Ngô about past social media posts that questioned his credibility or accused him of misrepresenting events, Ngô recognized that he has made errors in his reporting in the past. Such an instance could arise, he said, while live-streaming protests and providing his interpretation of events, only to later learn that something was incorrect.

He said when that happens, he issues updates or corrections as needed to address the error.

"That type of stuff I don’t think is unique to me as a journalist, but to my detractors, they think it defines me," he continued. "It’s very unfair, but I don’t think it’s operating out of good faith."


Watch the video: fahren in neuseeland (August 2022).