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The Ultimate Sacrifice, David Turner

The Ultimate Sacrifice, David Turner

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The Ultimate Sacrifice, David Turner

The Ultimate Sacrifice, David Turner

The World War II Battleship

This book looks at the loss of the battleship HMS Royal Oak, sunk while apparently safely anchored at Scapa Flow in the second month of the Second World War. The author's uncle, Commander Ralph Lennox Woodrow-Clark, was one of the 833 men lost on the Royal Oak, giving the book a personal connection to the events described.

Turner starts by setting the sinking of the Royal Oak in context, looking at the poor state of the defences of Scapa Flow as well as giving a brief history of the Royal Oak, and looking at the reaction to her sinking.

After setting the context, this book focuses on the fate of the crew of the Royal Oak, with first hand accounts from survivors and from the crew of the Daisy II, the ship that rescued many of those survivors, in what is a particularly moving and effective part of the book.

Turner has found a very good selection of photographs, most either of or related to the Royal Oak, along with pictures of the Bismarck and of other British battleships of the period. Although this is a comparatively short book, it is well worth the modest price, and should help to achieve the author's stated intention - to make sure the lose of the Royal Oak is never forgotten.

Author: David Turner
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 80
Publisher: Melrose Books
Year: 2004

Koch: Memorial Day offers reminder of ultimate sacrifice

Memorial Day is often associated with the beginning of summer, cook outs, vacations and taking in a baseball game. Sometimes, we lose focus of the significance of this holiday observed now on the last Monday of May.

Before it was called Memorial Day, it was called "Decoration Day.&rdquo &ldquoDecoration Day&rdquo dated back to the Civil War where it originally honored soldiers who died during the war. Today, we honor and commemorate on Memorial Day all men and women who have died while serving in the military. We especially remember and honor those who paid the ultimate sacrifice on the battlefield. We also remember families left behind where a place at the dinner table remains empty.

These families are called Gold Star families and they have sacrificed so much. They have lost their greatest treasure and Lubbock songwriters, Russ Murphy and David Spears, wrote in&rdquo That&rsquos What Freedom Costs,&rdquo they place roses on their soldiers grave. The pain of losing their soldier is tempered by time, but the pain never completely heals.

Since 9/11, almost 7,000 Americans have been killed in action in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many of those killed came from small town America. Many volunteered to join the military after seeing the Twin Towers come down. Heroes one and all for standing up for America. One of these men was Joshua Meadows of Elgin, Texas, near Austin.

Today, almost one-quarter of 1% of Americans are on active duty. It is one of the lowest level of participation in our history. So few doing so much to protect our way of life. Although the war in Afghanistan seems to be ending, wars will not end. Brave Americans will die in the future.

Texas Tech&rsquos only Medal of Honor graduate, Marine George O&rsquo Brien, in the winter of his life said that he was not a hero. The heroes were the ones who did not come home. He went on to say with deep emotion that those Marines he lost in Korea never experienced being grandfathers.

So enjoy Memorial Day. Catch a baseball game. Cookout and have fun, but take time to remember those who gave their all for us so we could continue to enjoy freedom. Go to a Memorial Day service like the one at Second Baptist Church tonight where Gold Star families are embraced and acknowledged. Say thank you to a veteran. Hug a Gold Star family member. Tell them thank you for their soldier&rsquos sacrifice. If we call out the name of a fallen soldier, they will not be forgotten. If you see an American flag, stop and give thanks to those who laid down their lives to assure our freedoms and our way of life.

Take time to go to the Monument of Courage at Henry Huneke Park and place a rose at the Gold Star Memorial. It is fitting to remember those honored there. All Gave Some &ndash Some Gave All.

Danny Koch lives in Lubbock and is part of the Friends of the Monument of Courage organization.

The Ultimate Sacrifice

Sacrifice is not a concept that anyone really enjoys. Although we are hearing the word more often these days due to price inflation in such core areas as food and energy, most of us do everything we can to avoid having to make sacrifices. As ironic as it sounds, we will make sacrifices in one area to circumvent having to make a sacrifice in another! This points out the human tendency to hold some part of our lives closer and dearer than others&mdashand we are loath to let go of even a small bit of what we love the most.

Jesus Christ did not live this way. In His human life, He was all about sacrifice&mdashHis whole life was a sacrifice. And His is the life that has been exalted as the perfect pattern for our own.

In terms of Jesus' sacrifice, anyone familiar with the Bible will first think of His sacrificial death at Calvary to atone for the sins of mankind. His crucifixion was indeed the greatest act of sacrifice in the history of the world, a perfect demonstration of His own teaching in John 15:13, "Greater love has no one than this, than to lay down one's life for his friends." His supreme offering of His sinless life paid the terrible cost of all of mankind's sins for all time (see Hebrews 9:26-28 10:10, 12, 14).

In John 3, speaking to Nicodemus, who later helped Joseph of Arimathea to prepare Him for burial, Jesus states a primary purpose of His incarnation: "As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up [signifying His crucifixion]. . . . For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved" (John 3:14, 17). He was, as described by John the Baptist, "the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world" (John 1:29), who was "slain from the foundation of the world" (Revelation 13:8). The apostle Peter makes it personal for us:

. . . knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot. He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you. . . ." (I Peter 1:18-20)

His sacrifice had been prophesied in many places in the Old Testament, as in the first recorded prophecy, Genesis 3:15: "And I will put enmity between you [the serpent, Satan] and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel." Isaiah 53:6 encapsulates the prophecy of the Suffering Servant: "All we like sheep have gone astray we have turned, every one, to his own way and the L ORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all." Jesus Himself refers to the prophecy of His death in Psalm 22 with His cry from the cross, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?" (Psalm 22:1 Matthew 27:46). Many places in the Old Testament show either a need for or a hope in a coming Redeemer (see, for instance, Job 19:25 Psalm 19:14 Isaiah 47:4 59:20 63:16).

It is difficult for short-sighted human beings to realize how the foreknowledge of His suffering and death must have weighed on His mind, perhaps from His childhood, since at the age of twelve, He told Joseph and Mary that He "must be about [His] Father's business" (Luke 2:49). Knowing He had come into the world to bear the sins of every man, woman, and child must have been an unimaginably heavy burden for Him. It was an obligation that was constantly before Him. Certainly, the expectation that on His shoulders rested the destinies of countless billions of people was a cup&mdashHis weighty lot&mdashthat He would gladly forgo if He could (see Luke 22:41-44). However, He was committed to doing God's will in everything (see John 6:38 8:28-29), so He bore it in faith.

We must look further, deeper, beyond His sacrificial death to His equally sacrificial life. His daily walk was an example of the Golden Rule, doing for others what we would have them do for us (see Luke 6:31). As Jesus says of Himself, "The Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many" (Matthew 20:28). Thus, His life was dedicated to exhausting Himself through giving to others. The gospel accounts relate occasion after occasion when He preached or healed or cast out demons or comforted everyone who came to Him for help (see Mark 3:7-11 6:54-56 Luke 4:40 etc.).

Yet, He made many other sacrifices, ones that we do not often consider. Perhaps the greatest one is that He never married and had children. Of course, His Father had already promised Him the church as His Bride (Ephesians 5:25-27, 32 Revelation 19:7), but He never experienced the joys and comforts of having His own family. He gained all His experience in family matters as an obedient Son and loving Elder Brother in the house of Joseph and Mary.

In addition, He sacrificed things that most people prize as good and worthy, like ambition, wealth, prestige, position, popularity, and many other such elements of "success." He had the wherewithal within Himself to attain any or all of these pinnacles of human achievement, but He shunned them all for the greater reward before Him: "Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, . . . for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God" (Hebrews 12:2). He considered His many fleshly sacrifices as nothing compared to the tremendous future He would enjoy in the Kingdom of God.

This is the lesson that the apostle Paul teaches in Philippians 3. Using his own life as an example, he relates that he had just about anything a person could want: the right genes, the right social standing, the right education, the right enthusiasm, and the right reputation. "But," he writes:

what things were gain to me, these I have counted loss for Christ. Yet indeed I also count all things . . . as rubbish, that I may gain Christ and be found in Him, . . . that I may know Him and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings, being conformed to His death, if, by any means, I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. (Philippians 3:7-11)

So he advises in verse 15, "Therefore let us, as many as are mature, have this mind." Like our Savior Jesus Christ, we must be willing to sacrifice whatever it takes to "press toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus" (verse 14). The glorious life of the coming Kingdom of God is attained through sacrifice, and the way we know (John 14:4).

Ultimate Sacrifice


So, Oftomes Publishing has it&aposs first Horror novel debuting this October 10th
Ultimate Sacrifice by S. E. Green is going to scare you, give you chills and keep you on the edge of your seat!
One of the most interesting, creepy reads I have read. with a supernatural twist!


So, Oftomes Publishing has it's first Horror novel debuting this October 10th
Ultimate Sacrifice by S. E. Green is going to scare you, give you chills and keep you on the edge of your seat!
One of the most interesting, creepy reads I have read. with a supernatural twist!


I am so sad that I did not like this book. I ADORE Vanquished, so, naturally I assumed I would love this too. No. Not my cuppa. :/

• The mystery wasn&apost done well
• The "romance" didn&apost really have a point
• It felt rushed and unorganized
• The characters had zero dimension

Full review soon! I am so sad that I did not like this book. I ADORE Vanquished, so, naturally I assumed I would love this too. No. Not my cuppa. :/

• The mystery wasn't done well
• The "romance" didn't really have a point
• It felt rushed and unorganized
• The characters had zero dimension

What a mind bender Ultimate Sacrifice was to read! Vickie had a normal life in a small-town community and she was very content with that existence. All was good, until the moment her twin brother emerged from the woods on their property covered in blood. He had just discovered a murdered little girl who was left in such a way that it pointed to a ritualistic killing. It was also rumored to be the first step to a series of steps needed to be completed in order to usher in the New Satanic Empire.

A What a mind bender Ultimate Sacrifice was to read! Vickie had a normal life in a small-town community and she was very content with that existence. All was good, until the moment her twin brother emerged from the woods on their property covered in blood. He had just discovered a murdered little girl who was left in such a way that it pointed to a ritualistic killing. It was also rumored to be the first step to a series of steps needed to be completed in order to usher in the New Satanic Empire.

After the horrific discovery in the woods, her family was thrust into a media frenzy and all of the skeletons came crawling out of the closed closets. Vickie began to make discovery after discovery involving her family member’s secrets that rattled the very foundations of what she believed to be the absolute truth. As she was forced to face realities, most of which were extremely disturbing, she began to uncover what the ultimate sacrifice truly was and that reality was utterly unbelievable and horrific.

From the start of Ultimate Sacrifice, I could hardly believe what I was reading and I was compelled to finish it. I needed to understand why everything was happening. As I followed that white rabbit down its rabbit hole I found that I was shocked, appalled, and left in bewilderment at the turn of each event. This is one of those stories that you read and you are left with a feeling of “this just can’t be happening!” This story was such a great read in that aspect. I did feel that there were a few questions I had that were left unanswered but it didn’t really affect the overall reading experience. Ultimate Sacrifice would be a book that I would recommend to readers who enjoy horror, suspense, and an ending that will shock you!

This review is based on a complimentary book I received from Xpresso Book Tours. It is an honest and voluntary review. The complimentary receipt of it in no way affected my review or rating.
. more

I received an e-arc in exchange of an honest review!

TW: violence, blood, death, sex, racism (the author goes against it)

I read this book last month, as I recieved it early from the publisher, and gave it 3/5 stars. If you aren&apost aware of my rating system, it basically means that I enjoyed the book, would recommend it to people who love its genre but still thought it had some flaws— it was good, but didn&apost meet all of my expectations.

Before starting this review, I must say that over the last few I received an e-arc in exchange of an honest review!

TW: violence, blood, death, sex, racism (the author goes against it)

I read this book last month, as I recieved it early from the publisher, and gave it 3/5 stars. If you aren't aware of my rating system, it basically means that I enjoyed the book, would recommend it to people who love its genre but still thought it had some flaws— it was good, but didn't meet all of my expectations.

Before starting this review, I must say that over the last few months my reading tastes have changed a lot. I am reading less and less YA books, not because I don't like this genre anymore (I will always love it) but because I somehow felt the need to read more classics, and not for university this time but for me, and realised how much those books make me happy. So when I started reading Ultimate Sacrifice, I knew it wouldn't be exactly what I wanted to read at the moment— plus, it is a horror story, which is far away from my comfort zone. I think that never in my life I have ever read a horror book. This is why I can't totally judged the whole thing because it's something that I don't know about.

To cover the whole thing, I'll start this review with the things I loved, and will then explain why I only gave it 3 stars by sharing what I think could have been done differently.

As soon as I opened the book, I was hooked. Indeed, you are immediatly immersed into the story and you want to know what is happening and what happened. So you keep reading, hoping to finally understand the whole thing and overall, you aren't disappointed. I personally read this book in one setting, in less than two hours, and it isn't because I am a fast reader (well, there's some of that) but because you just can't stop reading. It's not the kind of book that you can put down and pick up later— the whole plot makes you feel like you need to keep reading, as if you could save the main character from all of this.

As I said, I felt the need to save the main character, Vickie, from all that was happening. In fact, I truly cared about her, which doesn't happen a lot with me. Vickie is a young and nice girl, and I started to be scared for her from the beggining. She was only sweet, pure and strong— honestly, I couldn't have gone through half the things she had to live. It felt good to actually care about her, for the story would have been hard to follow if I haven't. She was the reason I kept reading and loved this book.

— The writing style and length

I am not gonna lie, it was pretty simple. But, as a matter of fact, it worked here. If the writing style would have been heavy, I would have simply gave up— the story was hard enough by itself. However, it was easy to follow and to understand. As I said, you were immersed in the story the minute you start reading the book and the fact that the author was explaining the whole thing with simple words, brief sentences and short paragraphs made the whole thing more enjoyable. It also makes you want to keep reading the whole book in one setting, which is great for those who can't bear the suspense (like me).

Plus, the book is quite short and that's what also makes it such a short read. If you are looking for a quick read for Halloween, then definitely go for this one!

You may have seen the publisher promoting this book as "an episode of Supernatural" and, well, it is true. Of course, there's no (gorgeous) demon hunters, nor a real investigation since we aren't following the policemen but a teenage girl involved in the story. However, the whole atmosphere was close to the tvshow.

I must say that I was scared throughout the whole book, but that's mostly because I am scared by anything. Still, the whole thing was mysterious and disturbing, and since it was such a quick read it truly felt as if you were watching an episode of a tvshow. Plus, it is so easy to read that you can picture everything that is happening quite easily in your head and the book really felt cinematographic.


— Lack of developpment

Even though I loved how short it was, I still believe that the author could have developped more things in her novel, and add more depth or perspective to her characters. The whole thing somehow felt rushed for me, and I sometimes couldn't understand the characters' motivations. I know that it was part of the mystery but some characters weren't described enough and made them instantly guilty to me. I wish they would have been all grey so that they would all have looked convicted.

Plus, I loved the fact that Vickie had a boyfriend who was black, even though their family was against it, but once again it wasn't developped enough. Of course, the story wasn't about it but I would have loved if this novel would have been disturbing in many ways: describing racism and violence against persons of colour could have add something to the plot and make the whole thing even more unsettling.

Of course, I won't spoil it but I didn't completly buy it. Why, you may asked. Well, because of all the things I just said: it felt rushed and many things weren't explained. You can see that the author wanted to surprise us, and she did, but she did it way too much. When I finished it, I couldn't believe it because it made no sense according to where the story was heading. Without making it too obvious, she still could have done it differently and make us suspect more people by letting us truly know everyone. We maybe could have had more point of views or maybe the author could have add flashbacks. Indeed, we knew practically nothing of the characters past and it seems impossible that everything was going so well before the whole thing happened. I wish the whole town would have been weird and every character would have had something strange about them again, I wish the novel was disturbing in so many more ways, maybe something more subtle and psychological. Something that will make you truly scared and not only disgusted by what was happening.

If you love YA and horror stories, then this one is for you. It definitely is a quick and enjoyable read that I recommend for a Halloween morning reading. Even though it has its flaws, I still liked it and truly cared about the main character. I believe that this book wasn't entirely for me even though I had a great time reading it, but can please many people out there!

Ultimate Sacrifice is a heart pumping, "edge of your seat" thriller. This horror novel is thought provoking, will make your skin crawl, and will have you suspecting everyone! It is perfect for readers looking for an intense story with a high creep factor.

The Plot: Life has always been ordinary and quiet for Vickie and her family. That is, until the body of a child is found in the woods behind their home. As an investigation unfolds, Vickie begins to question everything, and everyone. One thing i Ultimate Sacrifice is a heart pumping, "edge of your seat" thriller. This horror novel is thought provoking, will make your skin crawl, and will have you suspecting everyone! It is perfect for readers looking for an intense story with a high creep factor.

The Plot: Life has always been ordinary and quiet for Vickie and her family. That is, until the body of a child is found in the woods behind their home. As an investigation unfolds, Vickie begins to question everything, and everyone. One thing is for sure, their lives will never be normal again.

Boy, what a ride this was! I had gone in expecting a murder mystery and came out with a psychological thriller as well. It was powerfully mind boggling and entertaining. It was definitely creepy and had some great twists and turns, and, that ending! There were some really great things about the story, and there were a few not so great things.

There were just a few things I either didn't like, or thought could have been improved on. To refrain from spoilers, I will just say that one of the things I didn't like was the addition of a couple scenes of mature content. Though, I do understand what the author was trying to portray, so it doesn't affect my rating as much, I thought they could have been left out. I also felt that the characters could have had a bit more development. They were developed enough to keep my interest and to help me relate a little, but I would have liked a little bit to add to the depth of the story.

That being said, I loved the story twists. I was constantly on the edge of my seat. I suspected everyone, and I had several genuine moments of surprise during the plot twists, and the horror scenes. The writing style was enjoyable and really helped me get in to the moment and imagine the story as it played out. I felt like this could have been a thriller movie!

I enjoyed our main character, Vickie, despite her worst moment. I thought she was brave and caring of those around her. She really made the story. I did not enjoy her brother Travis as much because he didn't seem very relatable to me, but I enjoyed her other brother, Kevin, because he seemed real.

All in all, this was an entertaining thrill ride. It had murder, mystery, family drama, suspicion, and powerful twists. I look forward to reading more from the author!

Thank you to Oftomes Publishing for providing me with this free e-ARC in exchange for my honest review!

So, I have done something fun and unique. I had received the ARC of this one a while back from Oftomes Publishing, and had written my review on it. I had signed up for the blog tour to continue to spread the word and decided that I was going to do a re-read of the book and review it from a re-readable (making that a word, yep) perspective.
Ultimate Sacrifice is creepy, mysterious, and mind-boggling. It is a perfect Halloween read and will have you guessing until the very end! This one is well written, has an intriguing, developed plot, and is full of insane twists and turns! It will have you on the edge of your seat with your heart pounding!

S.E. Green has done an outstanding job with developing this story. It has an immense amount of creepiness and surprise to it! The murder mystery clues are so well hidden that, even on a second read through, it is still difficult to determine who killed Michelle until the very end! Every character in the book is a suspect.

On a second read through I feel that the characters are a little more developed than I initially thought. They each have their own unique personalities that add depth to the story and the suspicion of the murder. Vicki is still my favorite because she is daring and brave and really tries to figure out who the murderer is and why the clues keep linking to loved ones around her. Kevin seems more authentic to me second time around and definitely added a layer of depth to the story that I did not see the first time. I still do not like Travis, but his actions make more sense to me after reading the book again too.

Though there were several clues layered within the story that alluded to the truth behind Michelle's murder, I think it would take an extremely meticulous reader to pick them out and figure out the murder mystery before the ending of the book. Even with a second read through I could not pick out any particular details that pointed to the truth. The hints I found made more sense on second read through, but were definitely not obvious.

I have decided to raise my rating after reading this one through again. I really enjoyed the fact that it was re-readable and that the author spent so much time developing the plot, mystery, family drama, and powerful twists and turns that made this story so great! It was thrilling and creepy, with several satisfying horror scenes and suspicious characters. Make sure to read this one if you are looking for an October read with a high creep factor! . more

The Turner Report

Memorial Day is a time to honor all of those who have given their lives in defense of this country. It reminds us how lucky we are to live free in a land of democracy and opportunity. It also reminds us that this freedom has come at an extraordinarily high cost.

Nothing we do on Memorial Day will bring back those we lost in battle. Scars of families torn about by war fade, but they never heal.

At the very least, though, Memorial Day is a time to think about how truly fortunate we all are to call this place home. To have the freedoms and rights guaranteed at birth that so many have died fighting for throughout history.

This Memorial Day, join me in remembering those who have made the ultimate sacrifice defending the greatest beacon of hope this world has ever known. And please say a prayer for all of those still fighting for that cause.

Count your blessings today, and remember how important it is for God to continue blessing the United States of America.

ISBN 13: 9780786714414

Waldron, Lamar

This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

Ultimate Sacrifice reveals, for the first time, John and Robert Kennedy's plan for a coup in Cuba on December 1, 1963 — a plan that involved a U.S. military invasion. Unique, distinctly different, and far more advanced than any previously disclosed operation, this plan is corroborated by many declassified military and CIA documents that have never been quoted in any book before. It provides the missing piece of the puzzle regarding JFK's murder, and explains why Bobby Kennedy told close associates that the Mafia was behind his brother's assassination.

The Mafia had managed to infiltrate the Kennedys' intended coup. Ultimate Sacrifice describes and documents an attempt they made to kill JFK in a motorcade several days prior to Dallas. This attempt had more than a dozen parallels to Dallas.

Building on the work of the seven governmental committees that investigated aspects of JFK's assassination, the four million documents that were declassified in the 1990s, and exclusive interviews with many Kennedy insiders, the authors are able to tell the full story of these incidents.

· Ultimate Sacrifice Makes News with Kennedy's Cuba Coup Plan

· New History Reveals Previously Unknown CIA Code Name — As Well As Linked Assassination Attempt

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

Lamar Waldron's groundbreaking research has been cited in media outlets ranging from Vanity Fair and The New Republic to the History Channel and USA Today. His work has been acknowledged by authors such as Anthony Summers and Gus Russo, historians like Dr. John Newman and John H. Davis, and former goverment investigators Gaeton Fonzi and FBI veteran WIlliam Turner. Waldron received both undergraduate and graduate degrees from Georgia State University and lives in Atlanta.

Thon Hartmann is the award-winning, best-selling author of fourteen books currently in print in over a dozen languages. An internationally known speaker, his most recent books are The Edison Gene, The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, Unequal Protection, We the People: A Call to take Back America, and What Would Jefferson Do? His nationally syndicated radio show is currently on Air America and Sirius Satellite Radio.

What Are HBCUs and Why Were They Created?

Historically Black colleges and universities, more commonly known as HBCUs, are institutions of higher education founded to educate Black students. In the 19th century, when many colleges and universities refused to admit Black applicants, HBCUs offered them a route to higher education.

Most HBCUs are in the South. Some of the most well-known HBCUs include Howard University, Spelman College, Fisk University, and Tuskegee University.

Not all HBCUs are private schools, though many are. Florida A&M University, a public institution in Tallahassee, and North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro hold the spots for the best public HBCUs in U.S. News & World Report's 2021 rankings.

“HBCUs have been integral in providing leadership and role models for the African American community, the nation as a whole, and the globe.”

— Mila Turner, Ph.D., Assistant Professor at Florida A&M University

In total, the National Center for Education Statistics counts just over 100 HBCUs in the U.S., split nearly equally between public and private schools.

Many HBCUs rank among the most elite educational institutions in the country. For example, the so-called "Black Ivy League" includes colleges like Howard University, Morehouse College, Spelman College, Tuskegee University, and Hampton University. These Black Ivies educate exceptional students at both the undergraduate and graduate level.

While HBCUs were initially established to educate Black students, today HBCUs enroll diverse student bodies. In 2018, non-Black students made up about a quarter of the student population at HBCUs. They also offer more diverse faculty and staff than other colleges and universities.

Dignified Transfer – Dover AFB – Dover, DE

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A solemn Dignified Transfer of remains is conducted upon arrival at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware from the aircraft to a transfer vehicle to honor those who have given their lives in the service of the United States. The vehicle then moves the fallen to the port mortuary.

A dignified transfer is the process by which, upon the return from the theater of operations to the United States, the remains of fallen military members are transferred from the aircraft to a waiting vehicle and then to the port mortuary. The dignified transfer is not a ceremony rather, it is a solemn movement of the transfer case by a carry team of military personnel from the fallen member’s respective service. A dignified transfer is conducted for every U.S. military member who dies in the theater of operation while in the service of their country. A senior ranking officer of the fallen member’s service presides over each dignified transfer.

The sequence of the dignified transfer starts with the fallen being returned to Dover by the most expedient means possible, which may mean a direct flight from theater, or a flight to Ramstein Air Base, Germany, and then to Dover. It is the Department of Defense’s policy, and AFMAO’s , mission, to return America’s fallen to their loved ones as quickly as possible. Once the aircraft lands at Dover, service-specific carry teams remove the transfer cases individually from the aircraft and move them to a waiting mortuary transport vehicle. Once all of the transfer cases have been taken to the transport vehicles, they are then taken to the port mortuary.

In March 2009, the U.S. Secretary of Defense announced a change in policy that, upon consent of the family of the deceased, allowed media access to cover dignified transfers. The only dignified transfers that will be open to media coverage, with family approval, are those personnel who die in the line of duty supporting Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

On August 9, 2011, President Barack Obama, U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Mike Mullen, among other leaders, attended the dignified transfer for 38 U.S. and Afghan personnel killed aboard a helicopter shot down in Afghanistan three days earlier.

All photographs were found for this BLOG entry on

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The Wereth 11, a Little-Known Massacre During the Battle of the Bulge

The details of the Malmedy Massacre, in which members of Joachim Peiper’s 1st SS Panzer Division executed American soldiers who had surrendered during the early stages of the Battle of the Bulge, is widely known. Virtually unknown until recently, however, is the story of the Wereth 11—eleven African-American soldiers of the 333rd Field Artillery Battalion brutally executed by SS troops after the artillerymen had surrendered. Now, a resolution has been introduced into the US Congress (H. Con. Res. 68) to recognize the service and sacrifice of these 11 American soldiers. The media release below, from the House of Representatives, provides information on the Wereth massacre and the House resolution. For additional information on the events at Wereth, see “Emerging from history: Massacre of 11 black soldiers,” by Jim Michaels, USA Today, Nov. 8, 2013.

Rob Wilkins (left) and Jim Michaels with Nov. 8, 2013, USA Today.

Gerlach, Fattah recognize service and sacrifice of black soldiers massacred during Battle of the Bulge

WASHINGTON – As we near the 69th anniversary of one of the decisive battles in Europe during World War II, U.S. Reps. Jim Gerlach (PA-6th District) and Chaka Fattah (PA-2nd District) have introduced a resolution that would formally recognize the valor and sacrifice of 11 black soldiers captured, tortured and ruthlessly executed by Nazi troops in a pasture in Wereth, Belgium on the second day of the Battle of the Bulge.

The resolution, H. Con. Res. 68, also calls on the U.S. Senate’s Armed Services Committee to revise a 1949 subcommittee report to include an appropriate recognition of the massacre of the 11 black soldiers of the 333rd Field Artillery Battalion of the U.S. Army who were beaten, stabbed and shot multiple times at the hands of their Nazi captors almost seven decades ago on December 17, 1944. The original subcommittee report documented a dozen similar massacres during the Battle of the Bulge, but did not include any reference to the killings in Wereth.

The 11 soldiers massacred, known as the “Wereth 11”, were: Curtis Adams of South Carolina Mager Bradley of Mississippi, George Davis Jr. of Alabama Thomas Forte of Mississippi Robert Green of Georgia James Leatherwood of Mississippi Nathaniel Moss of Texas George Motten of Texas William Pritchett of Alabama James Stewart of West Virginia and Due Turner of Arkansas.

“Our country shall be forever grateful to every member of the ‘Greatest Generation’ who contributed to the defeat of fascism in Europe and laid down their lives so that future generations could enjoy the blessing of freedom,” Gerlach said. “Every now and then, it takes history a while to accurately reflect the monumental moments that have helped chart its course. That’s certainly the case with these 11 black soldiers who courageously fought on the front line in the Ardennes against a relentless enemy and eventually made the ultimate sacrifice for their fellow soldiers and our nation. This resolution is a tribute nearly seven decade overdue. And it is indeed a privilege to work with my colleague, Congressman Fattah, to ensure that the story of the exemplary service and incredible sacrifice of these 11 black soldiers is always remembered.”

Fattah added: “The valiant efforts and unequal sacrifice of the Wereth 11 soldiers deserves to be commemorated in our country’s history. These are men whose heroic story has been lost to time, but whose names must be honored, and whose accounts we must share today and into the future. I am proud to join with my colleague Rep. Gerlach in paying reverence to their courage and bravery, recalling their lives of service, and ensuring their story fighting for freedom over tyranny is told for decades to come.”

Historians note that that the Battle of the Bulge began December 16, 1944 as Nazi Germany launched an aggressive assault on American and Allied Forces in Belgium in a desperate attempt to shift the momentum of the war back in Germany’s favor. While Nazi tanks and troops initially overran many battalions, American and Allied Forces rallied and eventually prevailed in Belgium, advancing into Germany and toppling the brutal Nazi regime.

A 1949 Senate Armed Services Committee documented and investigated 12 incidents of Nazi troops massacring captured American troops and Belgian civilians during the Battle of the Bulge, but the Committee’s report omitted the killings in Wereth, and history nearly overlooked the horrific deaths of the 11 members of the 333rd Field Artillery Battalion.


In the early 1960s, the state of Mississippi, as well as most of the American South, defied federal direction regarding racial integration. [7] [8] Recent Supreme Court rulings had upset the Mississippi establishment, and White Mississippian society responded with open hostility. White supremacists used tactics such as bombings, murders, vandalism, and intimidation in order to discourage black Mississippians and their supporters from the Northern and Western states. In 1961, Freedom Riders, who challenged the segregation of interstate buses and related facilities, were attacked on their route. In September 1962, the University of Mississippi riots had occurred in order to prevent James Meredith from enrolling at the school.

The White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, a Ku Klux Klan splinter group based in Mississippi, was founded and led by Samuel Bowers of Laurel. As the summer of 1964 approached, white Mississippians prepared for what they perceived was an invasion from the north and west. College students had been recruited in order to aid local activists who were conducting grassroots community organizing, voter registration education and drives in the state. Media reports exaggerated the number of youths expected. [9] One Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) representative is quoted as saying that nearly 30,000 individuals would visit Mississippi during the summer. [9] Such reports had a "jarring impact" on white Mississippians and many responded by joining the White Knights. [9]

In 1890, Mississippi had passed a new constitution, supported by additional laws, which effectively excluded most black Mississippians from registering or voting. This status quo had long been enforced by economic boycotts and violence. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) wanted to address this problem by setting up Freedom Schools and starting voting registration drives in the state. Freedom schools were established in order to educate, encourage, and register the disenfranchised black citizens. [10] CORE members James Chaney, from Mississippi, and Michael Schwerner, from New York City, intended to set up a Freedom School for black people in Neshoba County to try to prepare them to pass the comprehension and literacy tests required by the state.

Registering others to vote Edit

On Memorial Day May 25th 1964, Schwerner and Chaney spoke to the congregation at Mount Zion Methodist Church in Longdale, Mississippi about setting up a Freedom School. [11] Schwerner implored the members to register to vote, saying, "you have been slaves too long, we can help you help yourselves". [11] The White Knights learned of Schwerner's voting drive in Neshoba County and soon developed a plot to hinder the work and ultimately destroy their efforts. They wanted to lure CORE workers into Neshoba County, so they attacked congregation members and torched the church, burning it to the ground.

On June 21, 1964, Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner met at the Meridian COFO headquarters before traveling to Longdale to investigate the destruction of the Mount Zion Church. Schwerner told COFO Meridian to search for them if they were not back by 4 p.m. he said, "if we're not back by then start trying to locate us." [10]

Arrest Edit

After visiting Longdale, the three civil rights workers decided not to take Road 491 to return to Meridian. [10] The narrow country road was unpaved abandoned buildings littered the roadside. They decided to head west on Highway 16 to Philadelphia, the seat of Neshoba County, then take southbound Highway 19 to Meridian, figuring it would be the faster route. The time was approaching 3 p.m., and they were to be in Meridian by 4 p.m.

The CORE station wagon had barely passed the Philadelphia city limits when one of its tires went flat, and Deputy Sheriff Cecil Ray Price turned on his dashboard-mounted red light and followed them. [10] The trio stopped near the Beacon and Main Street fork. With a long radio antenna mounted to his patrol car, Price called for Officers Harry Jackson Wiggs and Earl Robert Poe of the Mississippi Highway Patrol. [10] Chaney was arrested for driving 65 mph in a 35 mph zone Goodman and Schwerner were held for investigation. They were taken to the Neshoba County jail on Myrtle Street, a block from the courthouse.

In the Meridian office, workers became alarmed when the 4 p.m. deadline passed without word from the three activists. By 4:45 p.m., they notified the COFO Jackson office that the trio had not returned from Neshoba County. [10] The CORE workers called area authorities but did not learn anything the contacted offices said they had not seen the three civil rights workers. [10]

Nine men, including Neshoba County Sheriff Lawrence A. Rainey, were later identified as parties to the conspiracy to murder Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner. [12] Rainey denied he was ever a part of the conspiracy, but he was accused of ignoring the racially-motivated offenses committed in Neshoba County. At the time of the murders, the 41-year-old Rainey insisted he was visiting his sick wife in a Meridian hospital and was later with family watching Bonanza. [13] As events unfolded, Rainey became emboldened with his newly found popularity in the Philadelphia community. Known for his tobacco chewing habit, Rainey was photographed and quoted in Life magazine: "Hey, let's have some Red Man", as other members of the conspiracy laughed while waiting for an arraignment to start. [14]

Fifty-year-old Bernard Akin had a mobile home business which he operated out of Meridian he was a member of the White Knights. [12] Seventy one-year-old Other N. Burkes, who usually went by the nickname of Otha, was a 25-year veteran of the Philadelphia Police. At the time of the December 1964 arraignment, Burkes was awaiting an indictment for a different civil rights case. Olen L. Burrage, who was 34 at the time, owned a trucking company. Burrage was developing a cattle farm which he called the Old Jolly Farm, which is where the three civil rights workers were found buried. Burrage, an honorably discharged U.S. Marine, is quoted as saying: "I got a dam big enough to hold a hundred of them." [15] Several weeks after the murders, Burrage told the FBI: "I want people to know I'm sorry it happened." [16] Edgar Ray Killen, a 39-year-old Baptist preacher and sawmill owner, decades later was convicted of orchestrating the murders.

Frank J. Herndon, 46, operated a Meridian drive-in called the Longhorn [12] he was the Exalted Grand Cyclops of the Meridian White Knights. James T. Harris, also known as Pete, was a White Knight investigator. The 30-year-old Harris was keeping tabs on the three civil rights workers' every move. 54-year-old Oliver R. Warner, known as Pops, was a Meridian grocery owner and member of the White Knights. Herman Tucker lived in Hope, Mississippi, a few miles from the Neshoba County Fair grounds. Tucker, 36, was not a member of the White Knights, but he was a building contractor who worked for Burrage. The White Knights gave Tucker the assignment of getting rid of the CORE station wagon driven by the workers. White Knights Imperial Wizard Samuel H. Bowers, who served with the U.S. Navy during World War II, was not apprehended on December 4, 1964, but he was implicated the following year. Bowers, then 39, is credited with saying: "This is a war between the Klan and the FBI. And in a war, there have to be some who suffer." [17]

On Sunday, June 7, 1964, nearly 300 White Knights met near Raleigh, Mississippi. [18] Bowers addressed the White Knights about the "nigger-communist invasion of Mississippi" expected to take place in a few weeks, in what CORE announced as Freedom Summer. [18] The men listened as Bowers said: "This summer the enemy will launch his final push for victory in Mississippi", and, "there must be a secondary group of our members, standing back from the main area of conflict, armed and ready to move. It must be an extremely swift, extremely violent, hit-and-run group." [18]

Although federal authorities believed many others took part in the Neshoba County lynching, only ten men were charged with the physical murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner. [19] One of these was Deputy Sheriff Price, 26, who played a crucial role in implementing the conspiracy. Before his friend Rainey was elected sheriff in 1963, Price worked as a salesman, fireman, and bouncer. [19] Price, who had no prior experience in local law enforcement, was the only person who witnessed the entire event. He arrested the three men, released them the night of the murders, and chased them down state Highway 19 toward Meridian, eventually re-capturing them at the intersection near House, Mississippi. Price and the other nine men escorted them north along Highway 19 to Rock Cut Road, where they forced a stop and murdered the three civil rights workers.

Killen went to Meridian earlier that Sunday to organize and recruit men for the job to be carried out in Neshoba County. [20] Before the men left for Philadelphia, Travis M. Barnette, 36, went to his Meridian home to take care of a sick family member. Barnette owned a Meridian garage and was a member of the White Knights. Alton W. Roberts, 26, was a dishonorably discharged U.S. Marine who worked as a salesman in Meridian. Roberts, standing 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m) and weighing 270 lb (120 kg), was physically formidable and renowned for his short temper. According to witnesses, Roberts shot both Goodman and Schwerner at point blank range, then shot Chaney in the head after another accomplice, James Jordan, shot him in the abdomen. Roberts asked, "Are you that nigger lover?" to Schwerner, and shot him after the latter responded, "Sir, I know just how you feel." [21] Jimmy K. Arledge, 27, and Jimmy Snowden, 31, were both Meridian commercial drivers. Arledge, a high school drop-out, and Snowden, a U.S. Army veteran, were present during the murders.

Jerry M. Sharpe, Billy W. Posey, and Jimmy L. Townsend were all from Philadelphia. Sharpe, 21, ran a pulp wood supply house. Posey, 28, a Williamsville automobile mechanic, owned a 1958 red and white Chevrolet the car was considered fast and was chosen over Sharpe's. The youngest was Townsend, 17 he left high school in 1964 to work at Posey's Phillips 66 garage. Horace D. Barnette, 25, was Travis' younger half-brother he had a 1957 two-toned blue Ford Fairlane sedan. [19] Horace's car is the one the group took after Posey's car broke down. Officials say that James Jordan, 38, killed Chaney. He confessed his crimes to the federal authorities in exchange for a plea deal.

After Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner's release from the Neshoba County jail around 10 p.m. on June 21, they were followed almost immediately by Deputy Sheriff Price in his 1957 white Chevrolet sedan patrol car. [22] Soon afterward, the civil rights workers left the city limits located along Hospital Road and headed south on Highway 19. The workers arrived at Pilgrim's store, where they may have been inclined to stop and use the telephone, but the presence of a Mississippi Highway Patrol car, manned by Officers Wiggs and Poe, most likely dissuaded them. They continued south toward Meridian.

The lynch mob members, who were in Barnette's and Posey's cars, were drinking while arguing who would kill the three young men. Eventually Burkes drove up to Barnette's car and told the group: "They're going on 19 toward Meridian. Follow them!" After a quick rendezvous with Philadelphia Police officer Richard Willis, Price began pursuing the three civil rights workers.

Posey's Chevrolet carried Roberts, Sharpe, and Townsend. The Chevy apparently had carburetor problems, and was forced to the side of the highway. Sharpe and Townsend were ordered to stay with Posey's car and service it. Roberts transferred to Barnette's car, joining Arledge, Jordan, Posey, and Snowden.

Disposing of the evidence Edit

After the victims had been shot, they were quickly loaded into their station wagon and transported to Burrage's Old Jolly Farm, located along Highway 21, a few miles southwest of Philadelphia where an earthen dam for a farm pond was under construction. Tucker was already at the dam waiting for the lynch mob's arrival. Earlier in the day, Burrage, Posey, and Tucker had met at either Posey's gas station or Burrage's garage to discuss these burial details, and Tucker most likely was the one who covered up the bodies using a bulldozer that he owned. An autopsy of Goodman, showing fragments of red clay in his lungs and grasped in his fists, suggests he was probably buried alive alongside the already dead Chaney and Schwerner. [23]

After all three were buried, Price told the group:

Well, boys, you've done a good job. You've struck a blow for the white man. Mississippi can be proud of you. You've let those agitating outsiders know where this state stands. Go home now and forget it. But before you go, I'm looking each one of you in the eye and telling you this: The first man who talks is dead! If anybody who knows anything about this ever opens his mouth to any outsider about it, then the rest of us are going to kill him just as dead as we killed those three sonofbitches [sic] tonight. Does everybody understand what I'm saying? The man who talks is dead, dead, dead! [24]

Eventually, Tucker was tasked with disposing of the CORE station wagon in Alabama. For reasons unknown, the station wagon was left near a river in northeast Neshoba County along Highway 21. It was soon set ablaze and abandoned. [ citation needed ]

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