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Triangulum AK-102 - History

Triangulum AK-102 - History


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Triangulum
(AK-102: dp. 14,550; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11", dr. 28'4"; s. 12.5 k. (tl.), cpl. 206; a. 1 5", 4 40mm., cl. Crater T. EC2-S-C1)

Triangulum (AK-102) was laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MCE hull 1669) on 14 May 1943 as Eugene B. Daskam at Wilmington, Calif., by the California Shipbuilding Corp.; renamed Triangulum on 27 May 1943; launched on 6 June 1943; sponsored by Mrs. D. H. Mann; acquired by the Navy on 19 June 1943 from the War Shipping Administration on a "bareboat" basis; converted to Navy use at the Destroyer Base, San Diego; and commissioned on 30 July 1943, Comdr. Eugene J. Kingsland, USNB, in command.

Assigned to the Naval Transportation Service, the auxiliary cargo ship moved up the coast to load cargo at San Francisco and stood out to sea with a convoy on 28 August, bound for the New Hebrides. She arrived at Espiritu Santo on 2 October and, for the next five months, shuttled troops and cargo between ports in Australia and New Guinea.

Triangulum embarked part of a battalion of Army combat engineers at Lae and sortied on 14 April 1944 with Task Group (TG) 77.1, the Western Attack Group, for the invasion of Hollandia. On the morning of 22 April, she began landing her 700 troops on the beaches of Humboldt Bay. The ship completed discharging cargo by 1800 the next day and departed in a convoy bound via Buna, for Milne Bay. She then resumed her supply runs between Australia and New Guinea.

The ship loaded combat cargo at Manus and got underway for Hollandia on 7 November to rendezvous with a convoy proceeding to the Philippines. She arrived at Leyte Gulf on the 19th and began discharging supplies. During her visit there, Japanese planes frequently attacked Allied shipping; and, during a raid on Thanksgiving Day, four of her men were wounded by friendly antiaircraft fire. On 4 December, she departed the area for Australia and, after calling at Hollandia, arrived at Brisbane on 17 December 1944. Triangulum shuttled supplies from Australia to South Pacific bases, mostly in New Guinea, for the next year. The supply runs were broken by three voyages to the Philippines: in January, May, and August 1945. On 8 November, she stood out of Leyte to load cargo at Hollandia, Biak, Milne Bay, and Manus to be transported to the United States.

On the last day of 1945, the ship arrived at San Francisco where she was stripped for inactivation and ordered to join the Reserve Fleet in Hawaii. Triangulum arrived at Pearl Harbor on 23 February 1946 and was decommissioned there on 15 April. In May 1947, she was towed back to San Francisco and returned to the Maritime Commission on 2 July. Triangulum was struck from the Navy list on 17 July 1947.

Triangulum received two battle stars for World War II service.


Triangulum AK-102 - History

Kenneth was born June 6, 1921 in Pierre, South Dakota and enlisted on July 30, 1940 in Portland, Oregon. He was assigned temporary duty aboard the USS Rigel (Arb-1) on October 13, 1940 and was advanced in rating to Seaman Second Class on November 30, 1940 he had attended radio school starting October 13. On May 9, 1941 advanced to Seaman First Class and August 1, 1941 he was advanced in rating to Radio Mate Third Class. The USS Rigel was in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, according to Wikipedia:

Raymond was born February 6, 1915 in Jones, South Dakota and enlisted in the Navy on September 30, 1940 at San Francisco. He served aboard the USS Portland (CA-33), a heavy cruiser, starting November 28, 1940. He was advanced from Apprentice Seaman to S2c on February 1, 1941 and from S2c to S1c on July 1, 1941. The USS Portland was underway at sea on December 7, 1941 and saw much action in the South Pacific as detailed by Wikipedia:

Harry came aboard the USS Southern Seas on February 14, 1943 at Noumea, New Caledonia and remained on board until July 31, 1944 at Eniwetok, Marshall Islands. While aboard he was advanced in rating to Coxswain on May 1, 1943 then disrated on May 18 back to Seaman First Class as a result of a deck court martial. On October 1, 1943 he was again advanced to Coxswain and on January 1, 1944 he was advanced to Boatswain's Mate Second Class.

On August 5, 1944 he boarded the USS Corregidor bound for the West Coast and reassignment to a new construction detail. On December 15, 1944 he was aboard the USS Bland (APA-134), an attack cargo ship that participated in landings at Okinawa. After the war, Harry married his wife Marie on June 27, 1946 and died February 15, 1989 in Champion, Pennsylvania at 78.

Landon was born in Augusta, Georgia on December 20, 1925 and enlisted at Macon, Georgia on March 11, 1942. He boarded the USS Barton (DD-599) on May 29, 1942 and was aboard at Guadalcanal when the ship was sunk on November 13, 1942, here is the story from Wikipedia:

George was born in Brooklyn, New York on September 28, 1925 and enlisted in the Navy on February 16, 1943. He served aboard the USS Shackle (ARS-9), a rescue and salvage ship sailing from San Diego to San Francisco on March 18, 1944. On July 11, 1943 he was transferred for duty aboard the USS Southern Seas arriving on board September 4, 1944 at Saipan, Marianas Islands. He remained on board until the ship sank in the typhoon at Buckner Bay, Okinawa on September 9, 1945. He was advanced in rating from Y3c to Y2c on October 9, 1945. Here is how Lt. Kenneth Scudder describes George's last moments aboard ship:

Lt. Scudder describes his actions during the storm:

Albert was born January 12, 1905 in Mississippi. He commissioned the USS Southern Seas in Auckland, New Zealand on December 22, 1942 and departed in Noumea, New Caledonia on January 25, 1943. He earned a Bronze Star for his skill in saving the USS Yukon (AF-9) a stores ship that was attacked by an enemy submarine on September 22, 1944.

Award Citation as published in November 1944:

Lieutenant Commander Albert L. McMullan's outstanding performance of duty in bringing his damaged ship safely to port reflects great credit upon the United States Naval Service.

Robert was born in Indiana on September 14, 1921 and enlisted in the Navy on September 9, 1940 at Kalamazoo, Michigan. He left the base at Norfolk, Virginia on May 28, 1941 aboard the USS Lassen bound for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. On July 18, 1941 he is received on board the USS Narwahl (SS-167), a submarine, as a Fireman Third Class and on October 1, 1941 his rating was changed to Fireman Second Class. On May 18, 1945 he was transferred from the sub division as a Motor Machinist's Mate Third Class to the USS Holland (AS-3), a submarine tender, and then came aboard the USS Southern Seas at Guam, Marianas Islands on July 18, 1945. He was raised in rating to Chief Motor Machinist's Mate on July 1, 1945 and remained on board until the ship sank in the typhoon at Buckner Bay, Okinawa on October 9, 1945. Lt. Kenneth Scudder explains Robert Miller's action during the typhoon:


Triangulum Constellation

Triangulum constellation is located in the northern sky. Its name means “the triangle” in Latin.

Triangulum is one of the Greek constellations. It was first catalogued by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. It does not have any first magnitude stars. The three brightest stars in the constellation form the shape of a long, narrow triangle.

The constellation is home to the Triangulum Galaxy (Messier 33), one of the nearest and best known galaxies in the night sky.

FACTS, LOCATION & MAP

Triangulum is the 78th constellation in size, occupying an area of 132 square degrees. It lies in the first quadrant of the northern hemisphere (NQ1) and can be seen at latitudes between +90° and -60°. The neighboring constellations are Andromeda, Aries, Perseus and Pisces.

Triangulum belongs to the Perseus family of constellations, along with Andromeda, Auriga, Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Cetus, Lacerta, Pegasus and Perseus.

Triangulum has one star with a confirmed planet and contains one Messier object, Messier 33 (M33, NGC 598, Triangulum Galaxy). The brightest star in the constellation is Beta Trianguli, with an apparent magnitude of 3.00. There are no meteor showers associated with the constellation.

Triangulum contains two named stars. The names of stars that have been officially approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) are Horna and Mothallah.

Triangulum constellation map by IAU and Sky&Telescope magazine

The Greeks knew the constellation as Deltoton, named for its shape, which resembled the capital Greek letter delta. Eratosthenes said that the constellation represented the delta of the river Nile, and Hyginus wrote that some people saw it as the island of Sicily.

Sicilia was one of the early names for the constellation because Ceres, who was the patron goddess of the island, was said to have begged Jupiter to place the island in the sky.

The Babylonians saw Triangulum and the star Gamma Andromedae in Andromeda constellation as a constellation called MUL.Apin, or the Plough.

The Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius introduced a smaller triangle, Triangulum Minus, in 1687, formed by three stars located near Triangulum, but the division soon fell into disuse.

MAJOR STARS IN TRIANGULUM

β Trianguli (Beta Trianguli)

Beta Trianguli is the brightest star in Triangulum constellation. It has an apparent magnitude of 3.00 and is approximately 127 light years distant from Earth.

Beta Trianguli is a white giant star with the stellar classification of A5III. It is thought to be a spectroscopic binary star with components separated by less than 5 astronomical units and orbiting each other with a period of 31.39 days.

Beta Trianguli is a source of excess infrared radiation, which suggests that the stars have a ring of dust orbiting them at a distance of 10 to 20 astronomical units.

Caput Trianguli (Ras al Muthallah) – α Trianguli (Alpha Trianguli)

Alpha Trianguli is the second brightest star in Triangulum. It has an apparent magnitude of 3.42 and is 63.3 light years distant from Earth. It is a very close binary star system, one in which individual stars cannot be resolved. The stars complete an orbit around their centre of mass every 1.736 days. The system is believed to be about 1.6 billion years old.

The primary component in the system is either a subgiant or giant star and the combined stellar classification for the system ranges from F5III to F6IV. The primary star is a rapid rotator and, as a result, it has the shape of an oblate spheroid. When observed from Earth, the star’s ellipsoidal profile varies over the course of an orbit, which in turn causes variations in the star’s luminosity. The star is classified as an ellipsoidal variable.

The traditional name of Alpha Trianguli, Ras al Muthallah, comes from the Arabic ra’s al-muθallaθ, which means “the head of the triangle.” The star is also sometimes known by its Latin name, Caput Trianguli, which has the same meaning.

γ Trianguli (Gamma Trianguli)

Gamma Trianguli is the third brightest star in the constellation. It has an apparent magnitude of 4.01 and is 112.3 light years distant from Earth. It lies along the same line of sight as Delta Trianguli and 7 Trianguli and forms an optical triple star with them.

Gamma Trianguli is a white main sequence star belonging to the stellar class A1Vnn. It has a mass 2.7 times that of the Sun and almost twice the solar radius. It is about 33 times more luminous than the Sun. The star is believed to be about 300 million years old.

Gamma Trianguli is also a rapid rotator, with a projected rotational velocity of 254 km/s, and, like Alpha Trianguli, it has the shape of an oblate spheroid. It has a debris disk orbiting it and, as a result, it is a source of infrared radiation.

δ Trianguli (Delta Trianguli)

Delta Trianguli is another spectroscopic binary in Triangulum. It has a visual magnitude of 4.865 and is only 35.2 light years distant from Earth.

The system is composed of a yellow dwarf belonging to the stellar class G0V and an orange dwarf with an estimated spectral class ranging from G9V to K4V. The stars orbit their centre of mass with an estimated separation of 0.106 astronomical units. They complete an orbit every 10.02 days.

6 Trianguli – ι Trianguli (Iota Trianguli)

6 Trianguli is a quadruple star system in Triangulum. It has an apparent magnitude of 4.49 and is approximately 305 light years distant from Earth. The system has the stellar classification F5V.

6 Trianguli consists of a fifth magnitude G5 giant and a magnitude 6.44 F5 dwarf, separated by 3.8 arc seconds. 6 Triangulum A, the class G giant, is itself a binary star with a class F5 dwarf companion orbiting it every 14.732 days. The giant and the dwarf are 65 and 32 times more luminous than the Sun respectively.

6 Triangulum B, the other pair, is believed to consist of a pair of class F stars with an orbital period of 2.24 days and luminosities of 18 and 9 times solar. The stars are separated by only 0.05 astronomical units.

6 Trianguli has the variable designation TZ Trianguli and is classified as an RS Canum Venaticorum type variable, which is to say a close binary star with an active chromosphere that causes large stellar spots, which in turn cause variations in luminosity.

6 Trianguli used to be the main star in a modern subdivision of ancient Triangulum, which was known as Triangulum Minoris, or “the smaller triangle.” Triangulum Minoris was created in the 1600s and was formed by the stars 6, 10 and 12 Trianguli.

ε Trianguli (Epsilon Trianguli)

Epsilon Trianguli is a binary star system with an apparent magnitude of 5.50. It is approximately 390 light years distant from Earth.

The primary component in the system is a white dwarf belonging to the spectral class A5 V, believed to be about 600 million years old. The star has a radius three times solar. The secondary star has a visual magnitude of 11.4 and lies at a separation of 3.9 seconds of arc from the primary star. The primary component is believed to have a dusty disk in orbit because it emits excess infrared radiation.

Epsilon Trianguli is a suspected member of the Ursa Major Moving Group of stars that share a common motion through space.

HD 13189 is an evolved orange giant with the stellar classification K1II-III. It has an apparent magnitude of 7.57 and is approximately 1,800 light years distant from Earth. It has 2-7 times the Sun’s mass and is about 3,980 times more luminous than the Sun.

In 2005, a brown dwarf or planetary companion was discovered orbiting the star. The companion, HD 13189 b, has a mass 8 to 20 times that of Jupiter and completes an orbit around the star every 472 days from a separation of 1.85 astronomical units.

HD 9446 is a yellow main sequence dwarf with an apparent magnitude of 8.35. The star is approximately 171 light years distant from Earth. It has the same mass and radius as the Sun and roughly the same luminosity.

Two planets were discovered in the star’s orbit in January 2010. HD 9446 b has a mass 0.7 times that of Jupiter and orbits the star every 30.052 days, and HD 9446 c has 1.82 Jupiter masses and completes an orbit around the star every 192.9 days.

DEEP SKY OBJECTS IN TRIANGULUM

Triangulum Galaxy – Messier 33 (M33, NGC 598)

The Triangulum Galaxy is a spiral galaxy in Triangulum. It is one of the most distant deep sky objects that can be seen without binoculars.

The galaxy has an apparent magnitude of 5.72 and is between 2,380 and 3,070 thousand light years distant from Earth.

Triangulum Galaxy (Messier 33), image: Hewholooks at Wikipedia.org

Messier 33 is the third largest member of the Local Group of galaxies, after the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy. It is about 50,000 light years in diameter and contains about 40 billion stars. (For comparison, the Milky Way has about 400 billion and Andromeda about a trillion stars.)

The galaxy is also home to at least 54 globular clusters.

The Triangulum Galaxy contains the largest stellar mass black hole (a black hole formed by the gravitational collapse of a massive star) known.

The black hole, M33 X-7, was discovered in 2007 and has about 15.7 times the mass of the Sun. It orbits a companion star and eclipses it every 3.45 days. The total mass of the binary system is about 85.7 times that of the Sun. The companion star has a mass about 70 times solar, which makes it the most massive companion star known in a binary system containing a black hole.

The main component of this graphic is an artist’s representation of M33 X-7, a binary system in the nearby galaxy M33. In this system, a star about 70 times more massive than the Sun (large blue object) is revolving around a black hole. This black hole is almost 16 times the Sun’s mass, a record for black holes created from the collapse of a giant star. Other black holes at the centers of galaxies are much more massive, but this object is the record-setter for a so-called “stellar mass” black hole. In the illustration, an orange disk surrounds the black hole. This depicts material, fed by a wind from the blue companion star, which has been swept into orbit around the black hole. Rather than flowing unimpeded and uniformly into space, wind from the star is pulled towards the black hole by its powerful gravity. The wind that does make it past the black hole is disrupted, causing turbulence and ripples beyond the disk. The companion star itself is also distorted by the gravity from the black hole. The star is stretched slightly in the direction of the black hole, causing it to become less dense in this region and to appear darker.
The inset shows a composite of data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue) and the Hubble Space Telescope. The bright objects in the inset image are young, massive stars around M33 X-7, and the bright, blue Chandra source is M33 X-7 itself. X-rays from Chandra reveals how long the black hole is eclipsed by the companion star, which indicates the size of the companion. Observations by the Gemini telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii track the orbital motion of the companion around the black hole, giving information about the mass of the two members of the binary. Other observed properties of the binary were also used to help constrain the mass estimates of both the black hole and its companion. Illustration: NASA, CXC, M.Weiss X-ray: NASA, CXC, CfA, P.Plucinsky et al. Optical: NASA, STScI, SDSU, J.Orosz et al.

A stream of hydrogen gas linking Triangulum to the Andromeda Galaxy was discovered in 2004 and confirmed in 2011. This suggests that the two galaxies have tidally interacted in the past.

The Pisces Dwarf, another galaxy in the Local Group, is located 913,000 light years from both galaxies and could be a satellite galaxy of either Triangulum or Andromeda Galaxy.

The Triangulum Galaxy is sometimes also referred to as the Pinwheel Galaxy, but this name is formally used for Messier 101 in Ursa Major constellation.

The Triangulum Galaxy was probably first discovered by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Batista Hodierna before 1654.

Hodierna listed the galaxy as a cloud-like nebulosity in his work De systemate orbis cometici deque admirandis coeli caracteribus (“About the systematics of the cometary orbit, and about the admirable objects of the sky”).

Charles Messier independently discovered the galaxy on the night of August 25-26, 1764 and included it in his catalogue as object number 33.

William Herschel included the object in his own catalogue of nebulae, and also documented the galaxy’s largest and brightest H II region as H III. 150.

The H II region, a diffuse emission nebula that contains ionized hydrogen, was later designated NGC 604. It is one of the four brightest H II regions in the Triangulum Galaxy, along with NGC 588, NGC 592 and NGC 595.

NGC 604 is an emission nebula located to the northeast of the central core of the Triangulum Galaxy. It is about 1,500 light years in diameter, which makes it one of the largest H II regions known and the brightest H II region in the Triangulum Galaxy. It is also the second most luminous H II region in the Local Group of galaxies.

NGC 604 is more than 6,300 times more luminous than the more famous Orion Nebula in Orion constellation. The gas inside the nebula is ionized by a cluster of massive stars at its centre.

The region was discovered by William Herschel on September 11, 1784. It has an apparent magnitude of 14.

NGC 604 is one of the largest known seething cauldrons of star birth in a nearby galaxy. This monstrous star-birth region contains more than 200 brilliant blue stars within a cloud of glowing gases about 1,300 light-years across, nearly 100 times the size of the Orion Nebula. By contrast, the Orion Nebula contains just four bright central stars. The bright stars in NGC 604 are extremely young by astronomical standards, having formed a mere 3 million years ago. Most of the brightest and hottest stars form a loose cluster located within a cavity near the center of the nebula. Stellar winds from these hot blue stars, along with supernova explosions, are responsible for carving out the hole at the center. The most massive stars in NGC 604 exceed 120 times the mass of our Sun, and their surface temperatures are as hot as 72,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Ultraviolet radiation floods out from these hot stars, making the surrounding nebular gas fluoresce. Image: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team

NGC 595 is another H II region in the Triangulum Galaxy, about 3 million light years distant from Earth. It was discovered by the German astronomer Heinrich Ludwig d’Arrest on October 1, 1864.

NGC 634 is a spiral galaxy in Triangulum. It has an apparent magnitude of 14 and is approximately 250 million light years distant from Earth.

NGC 634 – This spiral galaxy was discovered back in the nineteenth century by French astronomer Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan, but in 2008 it became a prime target for observations thanks to the violent demise of a white dwarf star. The type Ia supernova known as SN2008a was spotted in the galaxy and briefly rivalled the brilliance of its entire host galaxy but, despite the energy of the explosion, it can no longer be seen this Hubble image, which was taken around a year and a half later. Image: ESA, Hubble, NASA

The galaxy was discovered by the French astronomer Édouard Stephan in the 19th century. In 2008, a Type Ia supernova, SN 2008a, was observed in the galaxy.

NGC 925 is a barred spiral galaxy in Triangulum. It has a visual magnitude of 10.7 and is approximately 45 million light years distant from Earth.

NGC 672 and IC 1727

NGC 672 and IC 1727 are interacting galaxies in Triangulum. They are only 88,000 light years distant from each other, and about 18 million light years distant from Earth. They are located outside the Local Group of galaxies.

NGC 672 and IC 1727, image: Wikisky

NGC 672 is a barred spiral galaxy with an apparent magnitude of 10.7 and IC 1727 has a visual magnitude of 11.4.

NGC 672 was discovered by William Herschel on October 26, 1786, and IC 1727 was discovered by Isaac Roberts on October 29, 1896.

NGC 784 is another barred spiral galaxy. It lies within the Virgo Supercluster. The galaxy has an apparent magnitude of 12.23 and is approximately 16 million light years distant from the Sun.

NGC 953 is an elliptical galaxy in Triangulum. It has an apparent magnitude of 14.5. It was discovered by the German astronomer Heinrich Louis d’Arrest on September 26, 1865.


Like all members of the genus Lampropeltis, the Pale Milksnake is oviparous. Mating takes place soon after emergence from brumation in the Spring, with oviposition occurring in June or July [2] [3] . This form lays 2-10 leathery, oblong eggs which hatch in August or September [3] [12] .

Like other members of the Colubrid tribe Lampropeltini, Lampropeltis triangulum multistriata is a vertebrate specialist. Known food items for this form include small mammals and Squamate reptiles (notably, Sceloporus and Aspidoscelis) [13] . Historical records of invertebrate predation in Lampropeltis triangulum have recently been refuted under the premise that invertebrate remains in the digestive tract are likely the result of secondary ingestion (i.e. the snake ingested an insectivorous prey item) rather than intentional predation [14] .


Stars and Constellations

Images (at bottom of page): | Triangulum Chart: (Figure 1) | Hyginus, 1482, page E1v: (Figure 2) | Hyginus, 1517, page G1r: (Figure 3) | Ptolemy, 1541-const, page Triangulum: (Figure 4) | Bayer, 1661, page W: (Figure 5) | Bayer, 1697, page G3v: (Figure 6) | Bayer, 1697, page G4r: (Figure 7) | Bode, 1801, page l: (Figure 8) | Aspin, 1825, page Andromeda: (Figure 9) | Images digitized by Hannah Magruder.

Constellation Data

  • Name: Triangulum
  • Translation: Triangle
  • Abbreviation: Tri
  • Genitive: Trianguli (What is the Genitive form?)
  • Size: 78 of 88
  • Located between: Andromeda, Aries, Perseus, Pisces
  • RA: 2 hours. (What is Right Ascension?)
  • Decl: +30 degrees. (Is this constellation ever visible from my latitude? What is Declination?)
  • Season: Fall
  • Midnight Culmination: October 23 (Where should I look for a constellation on a date before or after its midnight culmination? What is Midnight Culmination?
  • References: Chet Raymo, 365 Starry Nights, 195.

Description

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  • Movies: Internet movie database. (Movie list maintained by Sylvia Patterson).
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Oklahoma History of Science exhibits: http://hos.ou.edu/exhibits/. Page revised 4/15/04

Bad links, misplaced images, or questions? Contact Kerry Magruder. Thank you.

"If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore, and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown. But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile." R. W. Emerson, Nature

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Milksnake

Milksnake, Johnson Co., IL photo by C.A. Phillips

Key Characters: Black-bordered red or brown blotches or rings belly white with sharply contrasting black spots back scales smooth anal plate not divided.

Similar Species: Prairie kingsnake, Great Plains Ratsnake. See the Key to Illinois Snakes for help with identification.

Subspecies: Eight subspecies are currently recognized in North America, but only two are known from Illinois, Eastern Milksnake, L. t. triangulum Red Milksnake, L. t. syspila.

Milksnake, Woodford Co., IL photo by C.A. Phillips

Description: Medium-sized (up to 110 cm TL) snake with variable color pattern. The less brightly colored L. t. triangulum has 33-46 brown blotches on the back alternating with 1-2 rows of spots on the side. The brighter L. t. syspila has 19-26 red blotches on the back and 4-8 red rings on the tail.

Habitat: A variety of habitats from rocky, wooded hillsides and glades to old fields and wetlands.

Natural History: Usually found in rotting logs, under bark of stumps, or under logs, rocks, and other surface debris. Mates in spring and lays 8-20 eggs in June in rotting logs, tree stumps, or other rotting vegetation. The young hatch in August or early September at 20-25 cm TL. Diet includes small mammals, birds and bird eggs, reptiles and reptile eggs, frogs, and fish. Predators include birds of prey and mammals, but many more probably are killed on roads by vehicles.

Distribution Notes: Probably occurs statewide, with triangulum in the northern third of the state, syspila in the southern third and an intergrade zone in the middle third.

Status: Not commonly seen, except perhaps in the Chicago region and portions of the Shawnee Hills, because of its secretive nature. Red milk snakes may be over-collected for the pet trade at some localities.

Etymology: Lampropeltis – lampros (Greek) meaning bright, brilliant, radiant pelta (Latin) meaning small shield triangulum – triangulus (Latin) meaning ‘having three angles’ syspila – sys (Greek) together and spilos (Greek) spots.

Original Description: Lacapede, B.G.E. 1789. Histoire naturelle des quadrupeds ovipares et des serpens. Academie Royal des Sciences, Paris. 1:651 pp. For syspila, Cope, E.D. 1889. On the snakes of Florida. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 11: 381-394 [1888].

Type Specimen: Not designated. For syspila, Holotype. USNM 13380.

Type Locality: Not known. For syspila, “Richland, Illinois”

Original Name: Coluber triangulum Lacapede, 1789. For syspila, Ophibolus doliatus syspila Cope, 1888.

Nomenclatural History: Kennicott (1855) used the combination Ophibolis eximus (Harlan, 1827). Davis & Rice (1883) used Ophibolus doliatus triangulus and Garman (1892) used Ophibolus triangulus.


Members [ edit | edit source ]

    : The flying object sighted in its appearance is its cannon. Its main body is much smaller, but can take a lot of punishment and has ways to defend itself. : Consists of 5 bodies, and the ability to learn from attacks that defeat it by becoming immune to those elements. : The to-be Administrator leading the Triangulum. It is impervious to all forms of attack, and can render its enemies weak to elements before sweeping the field with a powerful fire attack. : A mysterious fourth member of the group. : Not a Triangulum, but a godlike backup mechanism of the Administrator System and the Triangulum's creator.

In the decade that we have been researching artifacts and players, we have encountered the occasional baseball fan bearing a measure of bitterness and animosity towards the men who played baseball on service teams during World War II. While it certainly is understandable when comparisons are made with players such a s Warren Spahn or Gil Hodges participated in and witnessed some of the most horrific battles of the war. It is far too easy to look at the stories surrounding players like Joe DiMaggio or Ted Williams who seemingly entered the war with significant hesitation that appeared to some to be evasiveness when other ballplayers such as Bob Feller, Hank Greenberg, Sam Chapman and Al Brancato volunteered days after the Pearl Harbor attack. Perhaps with perspective and insight into the wartime service of these professional ballplayers and the positive impact they had on their fellow servicemen, that bitterness may lessen.

The first Norfolk NTS artifact in the Chevrons and Diamonds collection: this 1943 Norfolk Bluejackets team photo featured many major leaguers including Fred Hutchinson (back row, 6th from right), Dom DiMaggio (front row, 2nd from left) and (front row, 2nd from right) Rizzuto (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection.

The very first Norfolk Naval Training Station artifact that landed within the Chevrons and Diamonds collection was a magnificent team photograph of the 1943 Bluejackets. The condition of the vintage type-1 photograph is less than desirable, and the image was a bit overexposed. Regardless of these detractors, the faces of each player are clearly identifiable in the high-resolution scan that we made from the photo. Soon after the acquisition of the photograph, we sourced a scorecard from the first games at Norfolk’s McClure Field against the Washington Senators (see: Discovering the Norfolk Naval Training Station Bluejackets Through Two Scarce Artifacts).

April 1943 Norfolk Naval Training Station program and scorecard for their season opener against the Washington Senators.

One of the featured players of the Norfolk team was already a budding star in his two-year major league career with 10 games in two trips to the World Series (1941 and ‘42) along with a championship ring. Phillip Francis “Scooter” Rizzuto played his last professional game on October 5, 1942, a loss to the St. Louis Cardinals in the Fall Classic. Two days later, “Scooter” was in Norfolk for boot camp having reported for duty in the U.S. Navy on October 7, 1942. By the spring of 1943, the former Yankee shortstop was filling the same position on Bosun Gary Bodie’s Norfolk Naval Training Station Bluejackets.

With many of the stories of baseball players finding their way onto service team rosters versus serving alongside other Americans in conventional armed forces roles (including combat), there are those who view these professionals with disdain seeing men who found a path to remain outside of harm’s way. Even today, there are those detractors who view these men with great animosity. Perhaps it is safe to make such an assumption that there were at least a few baseball players who could be judged in this manner, however it is far too simplistic and considerably easy to disregard what any of these men thought, felt or actually did, in addition to simply playing baseball. One must consider the impact that the games had on fellow servicemen. To stand shoulder to shoulder with the likes of Pee Wee Reese, Bob Feller, Joe DiMaggio or any of the hundreds who served and played the game to uplift the GIs and give them respite and a taste of home.

Another vintage photograph in our collection. The original caption (affixed to the reverse) reads: “New York: Phil Rizzuto, left, and Terry Moore, former Card captain and center fielder, are now part of the armed services. They got an opportunity to be present at the World Series and turned up in their uniforms to be given a hearty welcome by their teammates (Oct. 11, 1943).” (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection)

Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA) writer, Harry Grayson penned a rather sarcastic commentary (published in syndicated newspapers in mid-October across the U.S.) regarding Cardinals’ pitcher, Murry Dickson being granted a 10-day furlough (from his Seventh Service Command duties) in order to participate in the 1943 World Series versus the Yankees. However, the same opportunity was not afforded to Johnny Beazley, Howie Pollet or Enos Slaughter who were also serving on active duty. What made the inconsistency stand out more, according to Grayson was that Phil Rizzuto was on furlough in New York (to spend time at home before being sent for duty in the South Pacific) and played in a series with the legendary semi-professional Brooklyn Bushwicks as they took on the New London (Connecticut) Coast Guardsmen on September 26. Rizzuto, wearing his Navy service dress blues, was joined by airman (and former Cardinals center fielder) Terry Moore at Yankee Stadium (also dressed in his service uniform). The author mentioned Major League Baseball Commissioner Landis’ prior refusal to accommodate Navy Lieutenant Larry French’s request to pitch for his former club, the Brooklyn Dodgers, while he was stationed at the nearby Navy Yard, illustrating further contradiction. However, Grayson’s punctuating closing sentence that ballplayers, who had been scheduled for an exhibition tour of the Pacific, were left without excuses for duty (other than baseball).

Rizzuto’s time at Norfolk didn’t conclude with the baseballs season as he spent the winter months on the court with the NTS basketball team along with former Dodgers shortstop, Harold “Pee Wee” Reese. By early March 1944, Bosun Bodie was left to rebuild his baseball club due to the departure of Benny McCoy, Charlie Wagner, Tom Earley, Vinnie Smith, Don Padgett, Dom DiMaggio and Phil Rizzuto for new duty assignments. Scooter, Vinnie Smith and DiMaggio landed in San Francisco Bay Area Sea Bees base known as Camp Showmaker (located near present-day Pleasanton). While further assignment, Dom DiMaggio and Rizzuto were added to the Shoemaker baseball team, the Fleet City Bluejackets. DiMaggio was handed the managerial reins to the club that also included Hank Feimster (former Red Sox pitcher) and former Cincinnati Reds outfielder, Hub Walker. the rand faced the Pacific Coast League San Francisco Seals on April 4 for an exhibition game.

Since late January 1942, the Island of New Guinea was one of the Japanese Empire’s strategic targets with its natural resources and more importantly, its proximity to the Australian continent. With their invasion of Salamaua–Lae, the Japanese began to take a foothold on the island. By the time that Rizzuto and his former Norfolk Teammate, Don Padgett arrived on the Island in the spring of 1944, the Allied forces were amid the Reckless and Persecution operations against the Japanese. During his time in New Guinea, Rizzuto contracted malaria and suffered with a severe bout of shingles requiring his removal to U.S. Navy Fleet Hospital 109, located at Camp Hill, Brisbane, Australia. One serviceman wrote of Rizzuto’s time at the hospital and how he would interact with the American wounded mentioning (Ruby’s Report, The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, July 13, 1944) that Phil would do “everything to keep the patients’ minds off the war. Wrote the young sailor from Kentucky, “I have seen him sit down and answer questions by the hour and never once try to avoid a session of baseball grilling as only a bunch of hospital patients can put on.”

One of our two vintage photos showing Rizzuto in Brisbane, Australia, summer 1944. Shown are: Back Row (L-R): Charlie Wagner, Don Padgett, Benny McCoy. Front Row: Dom DiMaggio, Rocco English, Phil Rizzuto (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

Once he recovered from his ailments, Rizzuto took on duties as an athletic instructor, managing baseball service league while down under. “You’d be surprised how much sport can do to help the men who have just returned from battle.” the shortstop mentioned in an interview with sportswriter, Blues Romeo. Rizzuto’s primary duty in Australia was to organize games and tournaments for the battle-wounded sailors and Marines. “The physically handicapped boys in the hospital got together and formed athletic teams, “said Rizzuto. “They call it the ‘Stumpy Club.’ It’s made up of men who lost legs and arms in battle.” For those critical of baseball players who “got a free pass” from the war might consider the positive impact that many of the former professionals had on their peers. “Despite their handicaps, the men put everything they have into the game.” Rizzuto told the reporter. “At first it’s not a pleasant sight, watching so many guys with crutches, but that’s the kind of stuff that keeps their mind at ease.” the shortstop mentioned. “What guts those guys have!”

Joining Rizzuto in Brisbane were fellow major leaguers, Don Padgett, Dom DiMaggio, Charlie Wagner, Benny McCoy along with a handful of minor leaguers.

The second of our vintage photos taken in Brisbane. Rizzuto is kneeling second from the right (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

Navy leadership had no intentions of losing bragging rights to the Army heading into the Service World Series after watching the heavily stacked Seventh Army Air Force team dominate the 1944 league play on Oahu. While the 7 th was busy handling the competition and planning for the fall series, the Navy began assembling top major and minor league talent from the continent and the Pacific Theater.

At Furlong Field for the Service World Series in the fall of 1944. Left to right are: Ken Sears, Joe Rose, Phil Rizzuto, Marv Felderman. (Mark Southerland Collection).

Rizzuto and DiMaggio were recalled from Australia in September to Oahu in anticipation of the Service World Series (September 22 through October 15, 1944. Ahead of the series, Navy All-Stars manager, Lieutenant Bill Dickey plugged both Dom and Phil into their normal positions (center field and shortstop, respectively) for a Friday night (September 15) exhibition game against the Pearl Harbor Submarine Base Dolphins at Weaver Field (the Navy All-Stars won, 7-4). Two days later, DiMaggio and Rizzuto switched teams as the Pearl Harbor Submarine Base Dolphins for a regular season game against the Hawaii Leagues champion 7 th Army Air Forces squad on Sunday, September 17.

While the Army roster consisted of the 7 th AAF team (augmented with players from other Hawaiian base tames) For the series, the Navy fielded a team of All-Stars that would be the envy of either major league. To maximize the top-tier talent, some players were re-positioned from their normal spots on the diamond. Rizzuto was moved to the “hot corner” to allow for Pee Wee Reese to play at short.

1944 Hawaii Service World Series Results:

  • September 22 – Furlong Field, Hickam (Navy, 5-0)
  • September 23 – Furlong Field (Navy, 8-0)
  • September 25 – Schofield Barracks (Navy, 4-3)
  • September 26 – Kaneohe Bay NAS (Navy, 10-5)
  • September 28 – Furlong Field (Navy, 12-2)
  • September 30 – Furlong Field (Navy, 6-4)
  • October 1 – Furlong Field (Army, 5-3)
  • October 4 – Maui (Navy 11-0)
  • October 5 – Maui (Army 6-5)
  • October 6 – Hoolulu Park, Hilo (Tie, 6-6)
  • October 15 – Kukuiolono Park (Navy, 6-5)

With the Army All-Stars defeated handily in the Service World Series, Rizzuto returned to Brisbane and resumed his duties with the service baseball leagues and the “Stumpy Club.”

Following the completion of his duties in Brisbane, Rizzuto was transferred back to New Guinea to the small port town of Finschhafen (which was the site of a 1943 Allied offensive led by Australian forces) that ultimately secured the town and the harbor. Rizzuto was subsequently assigned to the Navy cargo ship, USS Triangulum (AK-102) serving once again on one of the shipboard Oerlikon 20-millimeter cannons anti-aircraft gun mounts as the vessel ferried supplies within the region. As the Triangulum was constantly steaming to keep the troops supplied in the surrounding Bismark and Western Solomon Islands, General MacArthur and the American forces were keeping his promise to return to the Philippines and dislodge the Japanese forces that had been in the Island territory since December of 1941.

By January of 1945, Rizzuto was serving on the Philippine Island of Samar (three months earlier, the Japanese Navy was dealt a deadly blow by the small destroyers and destroyer escorts of Taffy 3 just off the island’s coast) and remained in the region until he was returned to California by the middle of October. Rizzuto was discharge on October 28, 1945 and returned to the Yankees for training camp the following spring having been tempted by a lucrative contract and incentives to play in Mexico.

Whether it was the thousands of cheering service personnel attending the games in which Rizzuto played or his hands-on service rendered to the recuperating combat wounded in Australia, he served in ways that are entirely ignored by critics of wartime service team baseball.


Assessment of Edema

HISTORY

The history should include the timing of the edema, whether it changes with position, and if it is unilateral or bilateral, as well as a medication history and an assessment for systemic diseases (Table 2) . Acute swelling of a limb over a period of less than 72 hours is more characteristic of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), cellulitis, ruptured popliteal cyst, acute compartment syndrome from trauma, or recent initiation of calcium channel blockers ( Figures 1 and 2 ) . The chronic accumulation of more generalized edema is due to the onset or exacerbation of chronic systemic conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), renal disease, or hepatic disease.4 , 5

Diagnosis and Management of Common Causes of Localized Edema

Chronic venous insufficiency

Onset: chronic begins in middle to older age

Location: lower extremities bilateral distribution in later stages

Soft, pitting edema with reddish-hued skin predilection for medial ankle/calf

Associated findings: venous ulcerations over medial malleolus weeping erosions

Ankle-brachial index to evaluate for arterial insufficiency

Pneumatic compression device if stockings are contraindicated

Horse chestnut seed extract

Skin care (e.g., emollients, topical steroids)

Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (reflex sympathetic dystrophy)

Onset: chronic following trauma or other inciting event

Location: upper or lower extremities contralateral limb at risk regardless of trauma

Soft tissue edema distal to affected limb

Associated findings: (early) warm, tender skin with diaphoresis (late) thin, shiny skin with atrophic changes

Three-phase bone scintigraphy

Magnetic resonance imaging

Topical dimethyl sulfoxide solution

Location: upper or lower extremities

Pitting edema with tenderness, with or without erythema positive Homans sign

Magnetic resonance venography to rule out pelvic or thigh DVT (if clinical suspicion is high), or extrinsic venous compression (May-Thurner syndrome in patients with unexplained left-sided DVT)

Consider hypercoagulability workup

Compression stockings to prevent postthrombotic syndrome

Thrombolysis in select patients

Onset: chronic insidious often following lymphatic obstruction from trauma or surgery

Location: upper or lower extremities bilateral in 30% of patients

Early: dough-like skin pitting

Late: thickened, verrucous, fibrotic, hyperkeratotic skin

Associated findings: inability to tent skin over second digit, swelling of dorsum of foot with squared off digits, painless heaviness in extremity

T1-weighted magnetic resonance lymphangiography

Complex decongestive physiotherapy

Compression stockings with adjuvant pneumatic compression devices

Onset: chronic begins around or after puberty

Location: predominantly lower extremities involves thighs, legs, buttocks spares feet, ankles, and upper torso

Nonpitting edema increased distribution of soft, adipose tissue

Associated findings: medial thigh and tibial tenderness fat pad anterior to lateral malleoli

Weight loss does not improve edema

Onset: weeks after initiation of medication resolves within days of stopping offending medication

Location: lower extremities

Clinical history suggesting recent initiation of offending medication

Location: lower extremities

Associated findings: daytime fatigue, snoring, obesity

Suggestive clinical history

Positive pressure ventilation

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension if suggested on echocardiography

DVT = deep venous thrombosis .

Diagnosis and Management of Common Causes of Localized Edema

Chronic venous insufficiency

Onset: chronic begins in middle to older age

Location: lower extremities bilateral distribution in later stages

Soft, pitting edema with reddish-hued skin predilection for medial ankle/calf

Associated findings: venous ulcerations over medial malleolus weeping erosions

Ankle-brachial index to evaluate for arterial insufficiency

Pneumatic compression device if stockings are contraindicated

Horse chestnut seed extract

Skin care (e.g., emollients, topical steroids)

Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (reflex sympathetic dystrophy)

Onset: chronic following trauma or other inciting event

Location: upper or lower extremities contralateral limb at risk regardless of trauma

Soft tissue edema distal to affected limb

Associated findings: (early) warm, tender skin with diaphoresis (late) thin, shiny skin with atrophic changes

Three-phase bone scintigraphy

Magnetic resonance imaging

Topical dimethyl sulfoxide solution

Location: upper or lower extremities

Pitting edema with tenderness, with or without erythema positive Homans sign

Magnetic resonance venography to rule out pelvic or thigh DVT (if clinical suspicion is high), or extrinsic venous compression (May-Thurner syndrome in patients with unexplained left-sided DVT)

Consider hypercoagulability workup

Compression stockings to prevent postthrombotic syndrome

Thrombolysis in select patients

Onset: chronic insidious often following lymphatic obstruction from trauma or surgery

Location: upper or lower extremities bilateral in 30% of patients

Early: dough-like skin pitting

Late: thickened, verrucous, fibrotic, hyperkeratotic skin

Associated findings: inability to tent skin over second digit, swelling of dorsum of foot with squared off digits, painless heaviness in extremity

T1-weighted magnetic resonance lymphangiography

Complex decongestive physiotherapy

Compression stockings with adjuvant pneumatic compression devices

Onset: chronic begins around or after puberty

Location: predominantly lower extremities involves thighs, legs, buttocks spares feet, ankles, and upper torso

Nonpitting edema increased distribution of soft, adipose tissue

Associated findings: medial thigh and tibial tenderness fat pad anterior to lateral malleoli

Weight loss does not improve edema

Onset: weeks after initiation of medication resolves within days of stopping offending medication

Location: lower extremities

Clinical history suggesting recent initiation of offending medication

Location: lower extremities

Associated findings: daytime fatigue, snoring, obesity

Suggestive clinical history

Positive pressure ventilation

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension if suggested on echocardiography

DVT = deep venous thrombosis .

Diagnostic Approach to Unilateral Lower Extremity Edema

Algorithm for the diagnosis of unilateral lower extremity edema. (DVT = deep venous thrombosis.)

Diagnostic Approach to Unilateral Lower Extremity Edema

Algorithm for the diagnosis of unilateral lower extremity edema. (DVT = deep venous thrombosis.)

Diagnostic Approach to Bilateral Lower Extremity Edema or Anasarca

Algorithm for the diagnosis of bilateral lower extremity edema or anasarca.

Diagnostic Approach to Bilateral Lower Extremity Edema or Anasarca

Algorithm for the diagnosis of bilateral lower extremity edema or anasarca.

Dependent edema caused by venous insufficiency is more likely to improve with elevation and worsen with dependency.5 , 14 Edema associated with decreased plasma oncotic pressure (e.g., malabsorption, liver failure, nephrotic syndrome) does not change with dependency.

Unilateral swelling from compression or compromise of venous or lymphatic drainage can result from DVT, venous insufficiency, venous obstruction by tumor (e.g., tumor obstruction of the iliac vein), lymphatic obstruction (e.g., from a pelvic tumor or lymphoma), or lymphatic destruction (e.g., congenital vs. secondary from a tumor, radiation, or filariasis). Bilateral or generalized swelling suggests a systemic cause, such as CHF (especially right-sided), pulmonary hypertension, chronic renal or hepatic disease (causing hypoalbuminemia), protein-losing enteropathies, or severe malnutrition.1 , 4 , 5

Edema can be an adverse effect of certain medications (Table 3 1 – 5 ) . The mechanism often includes the retention of salt and water with increased capillary hydrostatic pressure. Diuretic use may cause volume depletion and reflex stimulation of the reninangiotensin system.

Medications Commonly Associated with Edema

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, trazodone

Beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers, clonidine (Catapres), hydralazine, methyldopa, minoxidil

Cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine (Sandimmune), cytosine arabinoside, mithramycin

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon alfa, interleukin-2, interleukin-4

Androgen, corticosteroids, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone

Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs

Celecoxib (Celebrex), ibuprofen

Information from references 1 through 5.

Medications Commonly Associated with Edema

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, trazodone

Beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers, clonidine (Catapres), hydralazine, methyldopa, minoxidil

Cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine (Sandimmune), cytosine arabinoside, mithramycin

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon alfa, interleukin-2, interleukin-4

Androgen, corticosteroids, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone

Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs

Celecoxib (Celebrex), ibuprofen

Information from references 1 through 5.

The history should also include questions about cardiac, renal, thyroid, or hepatic disease. Graves disease can lead to pretibial myxedema, whereas hypothyroidism can cause generalized myxedema. Although considered a diagnosis of exclusion, obstructive sleep apnea has been shown to cause edema. One study evaluated the apnea-hypopnea index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and found that even when adjusted for age, body mass index, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the index was higher in patients who had edema.15

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

The physical examination should assess for systemic causes of edema, such as heart failure (e.g., jugular venous distention, crackles), renal disease (e.g., proteinuria, oliguria), hepatic disease (e.g., jaundice, ascites, asterixis), or thyroid disease (e.g., exophthalmos, tremor, weight loss). Edema should also be evaluated for pitting, tenderness, and skin changes.

Pitting describes an indentation that remains in the edematous area after pressure is applied ( Figure 3 ) . This occurs when fluid in the interstitial space has a low concentration of protein, which is associated with decreased plasma oncotic pressure and disorders caused by increased capillary pressure (e.g., DVT, CHF, iliac vein compression).4 , 16 The physician should describe the location, timing, and extent of the pitting to determine treatment response. Lower extremity examination should focus on the medial malleolus, the bony portion of the tibia, and the dorsum of the foot. Pitting edema also occurs in the early stages of lymphedema because of an influx of protein-rich fluid into the interstitium, before fibrosis of the subcutaneous tissue therefore, its presence should not exclude the diagnosis of lymphedema.6 , 7 Tenderness to palpation over the edematous area is associated with DVT and complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (i.e., reflex sympathetic dystrophy). Conversely, lymphedema generally does not elicit pain with palpation.

Pitting edema, bilateral, as observed in a patient with congestive heart failure.

Pitting edema, bilateral, as observed in a patient with congestive heart failure.

Changes in skin temperature, color, and texture provide clues to the cause of edema. For example, acute DVT and cellulitis ( Figure 4 ) may produce increased warmth over the affected area. Because of the deposition of hemosiderin, chronic venous insufficiency is often associated with skin that has a brawny, reddish hue and commonly involves the medial malleolus4 , 5 , 8 ( eFigure A ) . As venous insufficiency progresses, it can result in lipodermatosclerosis ( Figure 5 ) , which is associated with marked sclerotic and hyperpigmented tissue, and characterized by fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition that can lead to venous ulcers over the medial malleolus. These ulcers may progress to deep, weeping erosions. Myxedema from hypothyroidism presents with a generalized dry, thick skin with nonpitting periorbital edema and yellow to orange skin discoloration over the knees, elbows, palms, and soles. Localized pretibial myxedema may be caused by Graves disease ( eFigure B ) . In the late stages of complex regional pain syndrome, the skin may appear shiny with atrophic changes. In the early stages of lymphedema, the skin has a doughy appearance, whereas in the later stages, it becomes fibrotic, thickened, and verrucous ( eFigure C ) .

Acute deep venous thrombosis with overlying cellulitis.

Acute deep venous thrombosis with overlying cellulitis.

Venous insufficiency with venous stasis ulcer over the medial malleolus. Note the yellow-brown hemosiderin deposition.

Venous insufficiency with venous stasis ulcer over the medial malleolus. Note the yellow-brown hemosiderin deposition.

Lipodermatosclerosis from chronic venous insufficiency associated with marked sclerotic and hyperpigmented tissue.

Lipodermatosclerosis from chronic venous insufficiency associated with marked sclerotic and hyperpigmented tissue.

Pretibial myxedema causing a peau d'orange appearance in a patient with Graves disease.

Pretibial myxedema causing a peau d'orange appearance in a patient with Graves disease.

Long-standing lymphedema with thickened, verrucous skin.

Long-standing lymphedema with thickened, verrucous skin.

Examination of the feet is important in lower extremity edema. In patients with lymphedema, there is an inability to tent the skin of the dorsum of the second toe using a pincer grasp (Kaposi-Stemmer sign)7 , 9 – 11 ( eFigure D ) . In patients with lipedema, which is a pathologic accumulation of adipose tissue in the extremities, the feet are generally spared, although the ankles often have prominent malleolar fat pads.12 Lipedema can also involve the upper extremities.

Failure to tent the skin overlying the dorsum of the second toe using a pincer grasp (Kaposi-Stemmer sign) in a patient with lymphedema.

Failure to tent the skin overlying the dorsum of the second toe using a pincer grasp (Kaposi-Stemmer sign) in a patient with lymphedema.

DIAGNOSTIC TESTING

Recommendations for diagnostic testing are listed in Table 2 . The following laboratory tests are useful for diagnosing systemic causes of edema: brain natriuretic peptide measurement (for CHF), creatinine measurement and urinalysis (for renal disease), and hepatic enzyme and albumin measurement (for hepatic disease). In patients who present with acute onset of unilateral upper or lower extremity swelling, a d -dimer enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can rule out DVT in low-risk patients. However, this test has a low specificity, and d -dimer concentrations may be elevated in the absence of thrombosis.13 , 17 , 18

ULTRASONOGRAPHY

Venous ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of suspected DVT. Compression ultrasonography with or without Doppler waveform analysis has a high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (96%) for proximal thrombosis however, the sensitivity is lower for calf veins (73%).13 , 19 , 20 Duplex ultrasonography can also be used to confirm the diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency.

LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHY

Lymph flow cannot be detected with ultrasonography. Therefore, indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy, which shows absent or delayed filling of lymphatic channels, is the method of choice for evaluating lymphedema when the diagnosis cannot be made clinically.11 , 21

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

Patients with unilateral lower extremity edema who do not demonstrate a proximal thrombosis on duplex ultrasonography may require additional imaging to diagnose the cause of edema if clinical suspicion for DVT remains high. Magnetic resonance angiography with venography of the lower extremity and pelvis can be used to evaluate for intrinsic or extrinsic pelvic or thigh DVT.22 , 23 Compression of the left iliac vein by the right iliac artery (May-Thurner syndrome) should be suspected in women between 18 and 30 years of age who present with edema of the left lower extremity.24 , 25 Magnetic resonance imaging may aid in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal etiologies, such as a gastrocnemius tear or popliteal cyst. T1-weighted magnetic resonance lymphangiography can be used to directly visualize the lymphatic channels when lymphedema is suspected.7 , 11 , 26

OTHER STUDIES

Echocardiography to evaluate pulmonary arterial pressures is recommended for patients with obstructive sleep apnea and edema.27 , 28 In one study of patients with obstructive sleep apnea, 93% of those with edema had elevated right arterial pressures.27 Pulmonary hypertension has long been thought to be the cause of edema associated with obstructive sleep apnea. However, one study found that although a high proportion of patients with edema had obstructive sleep apnea (more than two-thirds), nearly one-third of these patients did not have pulmonary hypertension, which suggests a stronger correlation between edema and obstructive sleep apnea than can be explained by the presence of pulmonary hypertension alone.28


3. Species Information

3.1 Species Description

The Eastern Milksnake is a non-venomous constrictor in the family Colubridae with brightly coloured, glossy smooth scales and a single anal plate. There are currently 25 recognized subspecies of Milksnake, which exhibit extreme variation in colour and pattern (COSEWIC 2002). It was suggested that the large degree of variation may reflect the existence of multiple species (e.g., Savage 2002 Pyron and Burbrink 2009), however genetic evidence was not available at the time to support this idea. Now certain recent studies have added support for a change in the organization of the various sub-species of Milksnake. Due to recent genetic analyses, the sub-species of Milksnake found in Canada is likely to be recognized as its own distinct species with the name Eastern Milksnake, however this does not change the latin name of Lampropeltis triangulum or the species conservation status (Ruane et al. 2013 Bryson et al. 2007). All subspecies are tri-coloured, with red or brown dorsal Footnote 9 blotches or rings outlined in black on a white or tan background (Conant and Collins 1998). The species is secretive and often attempts to move away when approached or it may vibrate its tail, hiss, and strike when threatened (Conant and Collins 1998).

Only the northernmost subspecies, the Eastern Milksnake (L. t. triangulum), occurs in Canada (Figure 1). This subspecies generally grows to be 60-90 cm in length (Strickland and Rutter 1992 in COSEWIC 2002). It has large red or reddish-brown oval blotches outlined in black along its back, and one or two rows of smaller blotches along each side. The blotches are bright red in young Eastern Milksnakes, but fade as the snake ages (Harding 1997). There is usually a light-coloured y- or v-shaped pattern on the back of the head and neck. The belly has a black checkerboard pattern on a tan, gray or whitish background, which may be obscured by dark pigment in older individuals (Harding 1997). Males tend to be longer than females, but in general males cannot be distinguished easily from females by their external features (Harding 1997).

In Canada, the Eastern Milksnake may be confused with several other blotched snake species that have overlapping ranges, including the Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus), Eastern Foxsnake (Pantherophis gloydi), Northern Watersnake (Nerodia sipedon), Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos), and juvenile Gray Ratsnake (Pantherophis spiloides). Massasauga has a much thicker body, darker body colouration, saddle-shaped blotches, a vertical eye pupil and a distinctive rattle Footnote 10 at the end of the tail. The heat-sensitive facial pits of the Massasuaga give the head an arrow shaped head differentiating it from other Ontario snake species. Eastern Foxsnake does not have smooth scales, has a divided anal plate Footnote 11 and typically lacks the distinctive v- or y-shaped blotch head pattern. The Eastern Hog-nosed Snake is a thicker-bodied snake relative to its length and has a distinctive upturned snout. The Northern Watersnake has highly keeled (or rough) scales and has a banded rather than blotched dorsal pattern. The back pattern on juvenile Gray Ratsnakes is composed of dark grey or brown blotches on a pale grey background and a divided or semi-divided anal plate. A recent summary of the natural history, distribution and status of the snakes of Ontario, including Eastern Milksnake, is available in Rowell (2013).

3.2 Populations and Distribution

The Eastern Milksnake subspecies is the northernmost subspecies of Milksnake and occurs from southern Maine and Quebec west to Minnesota and Iowa and south to northern Georgia and Alabama covering a total of 26 states and 2 provinces (COSEWIC 2002 Conant and Collins 1998 Figure 1). The distribution of the Eastern Milksnake overlaps to some extent with other subspecies in parts of its range in the United States (Conant and Collins 1998 COSEWIC 2002).

Figure 1 shows the North American distribution of the Eastern Milksnake, including the distribution of the Eastern Milksnake subspecies. The overall range of the Eastern Milksnake extends from southern Maine and Florida in the east to South Dakota and Texas in the west, although the range becomes more fragmented in the western portion of the range. The Eastern Milksnake range extends from southern Maine and North Carolina in the east to southern Minnesota in the west. In Canada, the range of the Eastern Milksnake includes a small area in the southern portion of Quebec and the southern portion of Ontario from Sault Ste Marie across to the Quebec border.

In Canada, the Eastern Milksnake ranges throughout the Carolinian and the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence zones (COSEWIC 2009). In Ontario, some records have occurred as far north as Sault Ste Marie, the north shore of Lake Huron, and Lake Nipissing (Figure 2). The current distribution of the Eastern Milksnake in Ontario stretches from the extreme southwest up to Echo Lake in Algoma District and as far east as Ottawa and Brockville (Rowell, 2013). In Quebec, Eastern Milksnakes are found only along a narrow southwestern section of the province (Bider and Matte 1996), where it is regularly found in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, including the area near Montreal, Montérégie, as well as in the Gatineau area (Centre de Données sur le Patrimoine Naturel du Quebec 2012 Figure 3). The extent of occurrence in Canada has been estimated to be approximately 229,285 km 2 (COSEWIC 2015).

Recent work on Eastern Milksnake has confirmed its presence in every Ontario jurisdiction currently within the known range of this species, with recent findings in Quebec showing the presence of Eastern Milksnake outside of its documented range (COSEWIC 2015). The total adult population in Canada is estimated to be greater than 10,000 adults (COSEWIC 2015). There is evidence that Eastern Milksnake populations have been lost from large urban centers and areas of intense agriculture, in Southwestern Ontario, so that Eastern Milksnake occurrences are extremely rare or absent and assumed to be extirpated from certain historical locations in the region (COSEWIC 2015).

Eastern Milksnake records continue to be obtained through public reporting, conservation organizations and species-at-risk surveys associated with development applications. The Ontario Reptile and Amphibian Atlas and the Atlas des Amphibiens et des Reptiles du Quebec both collect data on Eastern Milksnake distribution within the Province of Ontario and Quebec, respectively. Population estimates, however, are difficult to determine because of low detection rates, and because most observations were not collected using standard sampling methods (Paterson pers. comm. 2012).

Figure 2 shows Ontario sightings of the Eastern Milksnake. Sightings are categorized as recent sightings (1993 to present) and historical sightings (before 1993). Sightings are scattered throughout southern Ontario with a larger number of observations on the Bruce Peninsula and around Hamilton.

Figure 3 shows extant and historic occurrences of Eastern Milksnake in Quebec. Most of the observations are centred around Gatineau and Montreal.


Watch the video: Developmental History of the AK with Max Popenker (May 2022).