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Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War

Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War


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In France, the Treaty of Paris is signed, formally ending the Spanish-American War and granting the United States its first overseas empire.

The Spanish-American War had its origins in the rebellion against Spanish rule that began in Cuba in 1895. The repressive measures that Spain took to suppress the guerrilla war, such as herding Cuba’s rural population into disease-ridden garrison towns, were graphically portrayed in U.S. newspapers and enflamed public opinion. In January 1898, violence in Havana led U.S. authorities to order the battleship USS Maine to the city’s port to protect American citizens. On February 15, a massive explosion of unknown origin sank the Maine in Havana harbor, killing 260 of the 400 American crewmembers aboard. An official U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry ruled in March, without much evidence, that the ship was blown up by a mine, but it did not directly place the blame on Spain. Much of Congress and a majority of the American public expressed little doubt that Spain was responsible, however, and called for a declaration of war.

In April, the U.S. Congress prepared for war, adopting joint congressional resolutions demanding a Spanish withdrawal from Cuba and authorizing President William McKinley to use force. On April 23, President McKinley asked for 125,000 volunteers to fight against Spain. The next day, Spain issued a declaration of war. The United States declared war on April 25. On May 1, the U.S. Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish Pacific fleet at Manila Bay in the first battle of the Spanish-American War. Dewey’s decisive victory cleared the way for the U.S. occupation of Manila in August and the eventual transfer of the Philippines from Spanish to American control.

On the other side of the world, a Spanish fleet docked in Cuba’s Santiago harbor in May after racing across the Atlantic from Spain. A superior U.S. naval force arrived soon after and blockaded the harbor entrance. In June, the U.S. Army Fifth Corps landed in Cuba with the aim of marching to Santiago and launching a coordinated land and sea assault on the Spanish stronghold. Included among the U.S. ground troops were the Theodore Roosevelt-led “Rough Riders,” a collection of western cowboys and eastern blue bloods officially known as the First U.S. Voluntary Cavalry. On July 1, the Americans won the Battle of San Juan Hill, and the next day they began a siege of Santiago. On July 3, the Spanish fleet was destroyed off Santiago by U.S. warships under Admiral William Sampson, and on July 17 the Spanish surrendered the city–and thus Cuba–to the Americans. In Puerto Rico, Spanish forces likewise crumbled in the face of superior U.S. forces, and on August 12 an armistice was signed between Spain and the United States, ending the brief and one-sided conflict.

On December 10, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish-American War. The once-proud Spanish empire was virtually dissolved as the United States took over much of Spain’s overseas holdings. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate. Philippine insurgents who fought against Spanish rule during the war immediately turned their guns against the new occupiers, and 10 times more U.S. troops died suppressing the Philippines than in defeating Spain.


According to the treaty that ended the Spanish-American War, the U. S. would

The Spanish-American War, commonly called in Spain as the war of Cuba or the Disaster of '98, in Cuba as a Spanish-Cuban-American war, and in Puerto Rico as a Spanish-American war, was a war that confronted Spain and the United States in 1898, result of the American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.

At the end of the conflict Spain was defeated and its main results were the loss by the island of Cuba (which was proclaimed an independent republic, but remained under the United States), as well as Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam, which they became colonial dependencies of the United States. In the Philippines, the US occupation degenerated into the Philippine-American War of 1899-1902. The rest of the Spanish possessions of the Pacific were sold to the German Empire through the Spanish-German treaty of February 12, 1899, by which Spain ceded to the German Empire its last archipelagos - the Marianas (except Guam), the Palau and the Carolinas - in exchange for 25 million marks.


Treaty of Paris, 1898

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On May 1, 1898, the First Washington Volunteer Infantry Regiment musters at Camp Rogers south of Tacoma for the Spanish-American War. Governor John P. Rogers (1897-1901) appoints U.S. Army First Lieutenant John H. Wholly, Professor of Military Science at the University of Washington, as the regimental commander with the rank of Colonel. The 1,126 men of the First Washington will be sent to the Philippine Islands, but instead of fighting the Spanish, the regiment will battle Filipino insurgents.

The Spanish-American War

The Spanish-American War was fought primarily in Cuba and the Philippines, where revolts were under way against Spanish colonial power. The United States, with its own imperial goals, intervened against Spain. In April 1898, the U.S. declared war after Spain sank the battleship U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor. President William McKinley called for 100,000 volunteers.

The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War in 1899, and Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. Filipinos then declared their independence and Emilio Aguinaldo led a guerrilla war against the U.S. In the Philippine Islands, the men of the First Washington battled not the Spanish but these Filipino insurgents. The United States won the war and acquired the Philippines as an overseas territory.

The Washington Infantry Regiment

In May 1898, Governor Rogers ordered the Washington National Guard to form the nucleus of a regiment of infantry for federal service. Volunteers and activated National Guard companies from Washington communities assembled on a prairie south of Tacoma dubbed Camp Rogers. The 1,200 openings were quickly filled and men eager for adventure and patriotic service were turned away.

The 12 companies of the First Washington Volunteer Infantry were from the following cities: Seattle (2), Spokane (2), Walla Walla, Vancouver, Centralia, Dayton, Tacoma, North Yakima, Waitsburg, and Ellensburg. Most of these men were from the Washington State National Guard. In Seattle on May 6-7, 1898, about 125 men joined Companies B and D.

The head of the Washington National Guard was Tacoma lawyer William J. Fife, but he was hunting for gold in Alaska when the call came. Fife returned to find himself second in command to Wholly. Wholly instituted a strenuous training program and Army discipline. A popular company commander from Centralia was disqualified for medical reasons and some of his men refused to serve under another officer. Wholly dismissed the entire company and invited the men to reenlist. Most took up the offer and the former officer and his loyalists went home.

War in the Philippines

After less than a month at Camp Rogers, the regiment's battalions traveled to San Francisco for more training. The regiment left San Francisco for the Philippines in October 1898, after hostilities with the Spanish had ended.

In February 1899, fighting erupted between the U.S. troops and the insurrectos and America's first war in Asia started, officially lasting three and a half years. The 1,126 Washington volunteers helped garrison Manila and held a line that separated the city from Filipino insurgents led by Aguinaldo. They battled insurgents for six months before being sent home.

The regiment disbanded in San Francisco in November 1899. The men made their own way home to hometown receptions, the largest being a three-day celebration in Seattle. Volunteer Park in Seattle is named for the First Washington.

The First Washington lost 129 killed and wounded, including 14 felled by disease and accident. Some 239 men, including Col. Wholley, remained in the Philippines to pursue private interests or to reenlist in other units.

By comparison, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt's First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, the Rough Riders, served just 133 days in 1898 and fought in one skirmish and one battle in Cuba. The First Washington served 18 months and fought almost daily for at least six months.

Colonel John H. Wholley, Commander, First Washington Volunteer Infantry, Philippines, 1899

Courtesy Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines

Volunteers returning to Seattle from Philippines, ca. 1899

Courtesy UW Special Collections (Hester 10063)

Sources:

William Woodward, "Prelude to a Pacific Century," Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History, Winter 1999-2000, pp. 6-13 James B. Dahlquist, "Our 'Splendid Little War,' " Ibid., Spring 2000, pp. 14-23 Karl Irving Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines (Chicago: Hicks-Judd, 1899) Edmund Morris, The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt (New York: The Modern Library, 2001 edition), 618-722' Seattle Post-Intelligencer, November 5, 1899 Clarence B. Bagley, History of King County Washington, Vol. 1 (Seattle: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1928), 445-446.
Note: This file was revised and expanded on May 2, 2006.


Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, and it was ratified by congress on January 14, 1784. It marked the end of the American Revolutionary war. It would only be brought back to life by history books, stories, and other accounts of the events which so violently took place.

After eight years of bloodshed and sorrow eight years of devastation and loss after many had died and seen loved ones fall, it was finally over. To be lost in memory and haunted dreams.

On that cloudy day the British, represented by Richard Oswald and Henry Strachey, met with the Americans, represented by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens. That day they signed a treaty of peace. The Americans were finally free. They could make their own rule, they could be their own people. The violence and bloodshed was over.

A painting was to be done of the signing, but when asked to pose for the picture, the British refused. They were too proud to have their faces on the painting of what amounted to a defeat. The painting to this day is incomplete.

Treaty of Paris by B. West, unfinished because the British party refused to pose for the portrait. | Public domain image, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Provisions of the Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris consisted primarily of ten articles. These were:


Deals can never be entirely fair

Wars cost lives, money, and distress within a country and so the Treaty of Paris, which marked the end of the Spanish-American War was good in that war was ended. The United States generally feels the need to be in other people's business, so while we freed the Cubans from Spanish rule, they still haven't ended up liking the U.S. that much due to their overhead control. The U.S. gained multiple new territories which generate revenue, while the Spaniards had to back off. Their small compensation did not account for the resources they were losing access to trading.


Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War - HISTORY


The Treaty of Paris Document - Courtesy of:
The National Archives and Records Administration

All of these ideas were discredited, especially the last because the Americans believed that the Philippines weren’t capable of running a country on itself. If the United States didn’t retain power over the country, then some other colonial power like Japan or Germany could. Americans viewed Filipinos as “childlike and incapable of self-government.” They believed that they were tutors to help them mature and it was “American’s duty to 'civilize' the Filipinos," and this led them to their belief in the " White Man’s Burden ." Anders Stephanson stated "nothing could be more negligent than leaving them in anarchy." 2 Independence would only be granted if they evolved and matured enough to the point where they were capable of self government.


44d. The Spanish-American War and Its Consequences


Americans aboard the Olympia prepare to fire on Spanish ships during the Battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898.

The United States was simply unprepared for war. What Americans had in enthusiastic spirit, they lacked in military strength. The navy, although improved, was simply a shadow of what it would become by World War I. The United States Army was understaffed, underequipped, and undertrained. The most recent action seen by the army was fighting the Native Americans on the frontier. Cuba required summer uniforms the US troops arrived with heavy woolen coats and pants. The food budget paid for substandard provisions for the soldiers. What made these daunting problems more managable was one simple reality. Spain was even less ready for war than the United States.

Battle of Manila Bay

Prior to the building of the Panama Canal, each nation required a two-ocean navy. The major portion of Spain's Pacific fleet was located in the Spanish Philippines at Manila Bay . Under orders from Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, Admiral George Dewey descended upon the Philippines prior to the declaration of war. Dewey was in the perfect position to strike, and when given his orders to attack on May 1, 1898, the American navy was ready. Those who look back with fondness on American military triumphs must count the Battle of Manila Bay as one of the greatest success stories. The larger, wooden Spanish fleet was no match for the newer American steel navy. After Dewey's guns stopped firing, the entire Spanish squadron was a hulking disaster. The only American casualty came from sunstroke. The Philippines remained in Spanish control until the army had been recruited, trained, and transported to the Pacific.

Invading Cuba

The situation in Cuba was far less pretty for the Americans. At the outbreak of war the United States was outnumbered 7 to 1 in army personnel. The invading force led by General William Shafter landed rather uneventfully near Santiago . The real glory of the Cuban campaign was grabbed by the Rough Riders. Comprising cowboys, adventurous college students, and ex-convicts, the Rough Riders were a volunteer regiment commanded by Leonard Wood , but organized by Theodore Roosevelt. Supported by two African American regiments, the Rough Riders charged up San Juan Hill and helped Shafter bottle the Spanish forces in Santiago harbor. The war was lost when the Spanish Atlantic fleet was destroyed by the pursuing American forces.

Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris was most generous to the winners. The United States received the Philippines and the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico . Cuba became independent, and Spain was awarded $20 million dollars for its losses. The treaty prompted a heated debate in the United States. Anti-imperialists called the US hypocritical for condemning European empires while pursuing one of its own. The war was supposed to be about freeing Cuba, not seizing the Philippines. Criticism increased when Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo waged a 3-year insurrection against their new American colonizers. While the Spanish-American War lasted ten weeks and resulted in 400 battle deaths, the Philippine Insurrection lasted nearly three years and claimed 4000 American lives. Nevertheless, President McKinley's expansionist policies were supported by the American public, who seemed more than willing to accept the blessings and curses of their new expanding empire.


On This Day: Treaty of Paris Ended America’s ‘Splendid Little War’

After ten weeks of difficult negotiations, Spain and the United States finally signed the Treaty of Paris on 10 December 1898, officially ending the Spanish-American War. This 14-week conflict, described as “a splendid little war” by American ambassador (soon to be Secretary of State) John Hay in a letter to his friend (and war hero) Theodore Roosevelt, is perhaps America’s least known war, and certainly one of its most controversial.

Photo: John Hay, Secretary of State, signing the memorandum of ratification for the Treaty of Paris on behalf of the United States, 10 December 1898. Credit: Frances Benjamin Johnston Wikimedia Commons.

Some historians say the Spanish-American War was an honorable affair, fought by altruistic Americans to free the oppressed Cubans from the yoke of Spanish colonization. Others say this was America’s foray into imperialism: its first war fought not to consolidate its holdings on the North American continent but rather to gain overseas possessions.

The American public had been whipped into a frenzy against Spain, especially after a massive explosion sank the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor, Cuba, killing over 260 men, on 15 February 1898.

Illustration: painting by the Chicago firm of Kurz & Allison showing the destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor, Cuba, with inserts of location of the “Maine-Havana Habor,” recovering the dead bodies, and head-and-shoulders portraits of Admiral Sicard and Captain Sigsbee. Credit: U.S. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

With the public, newspapers, and business community all calling for action, a reluctant President William McKinley could not stem the war fervor. After Spain rejected an ultimatum to leave Cuba, Congress declared that a state of war with Spain had existed since 21 April 1898.

Fought from 25 April to 12 August 1898, with military engagements in Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam, American forces destroyed two Spanish fleets and beat several armies. Recognizing its defeat, Spain sued for peace and a cease-fire was declared on August 12. The American and Spanish commissions met in Paris on October 1 and talks began, with America clearly negotiating from a position of strength.

When the final treaty was settled, Spain agreed to withdraw from Cuba and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States for $20 million. Spain’s days as a world power with an empire were over, while America’s emergence as a world power was firmly established.

Kansas City Star (Kansas City, Missouri), 10 December 1898, page 1

Here is a transcript of this article:

THE TREATY SIGNED.

American and Spanish Commissioners Affixed Their Signatures in Paris at 8 O’clock This Evening.

AFTER TWO MONTHS’ TALK.

The First Joint Meeting of the Peace Commissioners Was Held October 1.

Spain Yielded to the Demands of the American Commissioners Only after Protracted Protest.

CONTENTS KEPT SECRET.

Details of the Treaty Will Not Be Given Out until the American Senate Hears Them.

Paris, Dec. 10 – The treaty of peace was signed at 8:45 p.m. tonight. The exact terms of the treaty will not be given out at present. They must be submitted finally to Washington and Madrid before publication.

The treaty in brief is as follows.

First – The customary preface of treaties, in the nature of an expression of amity and of hope for perpetual peace.
Second – The relinquishment by Spain of her sovereignty over Cuba.
Third – The withdrawal of the Spanish troops.
Fourth – The relinquishment by Spain of her sovereignty over Porto Rico.
Fifth – Spain’s cession of the Philippines.
Sixth – The withdrawal of the Spanish troops there.
Seventh – Payment by the United States of 20 million dollars for the Philippines.
Eighth – The provision for the “open door” commercial policy in the Philippines.

The joint peace commission met at 3:30 this afternoon and at 5:15 took a recess until 7 p.m.

The Americans were the first to arrive at the foreign office, the Spaniards coming half an hour later. Senor Montero Rios, president of the Spanish commission, ascended the steps leaning on a cane and bundled up in a fur coat. The Americans shook hands with the Spaniards when the latter entered the conference hall.

The commissioners were photographed in a group, after which they listened to the reading of the treaty until 5:15, at which hour they took a recess until 7 o’clock.

The adjournment was to allow the finishing of the engrossing of the treaties. This was not completed until late. When the commissioners met at 7 o’clock they listened to the reading of the remainder of the treaty. This took three-quarters of an hour and after its conclusion the treaty was signed.

…On the day that the Spanish commission was appointed the American commission sailed from New York to Liverpool, where it arrived September 24. Three days later both commissions reached Paris. The first business meeting was held October 1.

The evacuation of Cuba and the cession of Porto Rico were at once taken up. Spain insisted that the United States assume the Cuban debt. It was not until October 21, three weeks after the first meeting, that Spain yielded her first point and agreed to assume the debt.

Ten days later the United States commission took up the question of the Philippines. It was proposed that Spain cede the group to the United States and that the United States assume part of the debts of the islands. The Spanish commission refused practically to consider the proposition. They entered into long disputes over the wording of the protocol. Then they asked for time. November 21 the United States presented an ultimatum in which 20 million dollars was offered for the islands. The Spanish commissioners were shocked at the proposal and said, in interviews, that Spain might yield the islands to force, but she would never take money for them.

Wanted 100 Million Dollars

Three days later they suggested to the American commissioners that 100 million dollars might be considered. This offer was refused and they asked for delay. Finally, November 28, the American terms were agreed to.

Note: An online collection of newspapers, such as GenealogyBank’s


Treaty of Paris, 1898

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Watch the video: The Spanish-American War - Explained in 11 minutes (June 2022).