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Censer, Maya Culture

Censer, Maya Culture


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Censer, Guatemala, Maya culture, classical, 600 - 900 CE, terracotta. Made from 80 pictures with MeshRoom 2.8.

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Ancient Maya art

Ancient Mayan art is about the material arts of the Mayan civilization, an eastern and south-eastern Mesoamerican culture shared by a great number of kingdoms in present-day Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras. Many regional artistic traditions existed side by side, usually coinciding with the changing boundaries of Maya polities. This civilization took shape in the course of the later Preclassic Period (from c. 750 BC to 100 BC), when the first cities and monumental architecture started to develop and the hieroglyphic script came into being. Its greatest artistic flowering occurred during the seven centuries of the Classic Period (c. 250 to 950 CE).

Mayan art forms tend to be more stiffly organized during the Early Classic (250-550 CE) and to become more expressive during the Late Classic phase (550-950 CE). In the course of history, influences of various other Mesoamerican cultures were absorbed. In the late Preclassic, the influence of the Olmec style is still discernible (as in the San Bartolo murals), whereas in the Early Classic, the style of central Mexican Teotihuacan made itself felt, just as that of the Toltec in the Postclassic.

After the demise of the Classic kingdoms of the central lowlands, ancient Maya art went through an extended Postclassic phase (950-1550 CE) centered on the Yucatan peninsula, before the upheavals of the sixteenth century destroyed courtly culture and put an end to the Mayan artistic tradition. Traditional art forms mainly survived in weaving and the design of peasant houses.


While doing some research on different types of censers (incense burners) used in Mesoamerica, I came across a useful article on the subject by Walter Hough, entitled (creatively) “Censers and Incense of Mexico and Central America.” The article dates from 1912 and doesn’t have the benefit of recent excavations at the Huey Teocalli in Mexico City, but I still found it valuable as a solid overview of the major types of incense burners (popochcomitl in Nahuatl) used in precolumbian Mexico and neighboring regions. It’s a well-organized and reasonably-concise article, and contains a good number of photographs of examples for each of the major shapes and style variations by broad ethnic groupings. To read “Censers and Incense of Mexico and Central America” by Walter Hough via GoogleBooks, please click HERE. A full-text PDF of the article can also be downloaded, as the article is in the public domain. (A warning note — unsurprisingly, given its age, Hough’s article is marred by some obnoxious ethnocentric language common to writing from the period. Fortunately, it’s less pervasive than what I’ve seen from some of his contemporaries, so hopefully you can look past it to benefit from the real meat of the essay.)

I’d like to comment briefly on some of the most interesting parts of the article. I’ll start with some thoughts about the large, stationary “hourglass” type censer he mentions, which were permanent installations at the temples (depicted on page 9 of the PDF, page 112 in the original numbering). Called tlexictli, or “fire navels,” they instantly bring to mind Xiuhtecuhtli (also called Huehueteotl), the ancient Lord of Fire, who is said to dwell in the “navel” of the universe, as recorded throughout the Florentine Codex by Sahagun. Also according to Sahagun, these large braziers provided not only continual light, warmth, and a place to burn copal, but were used in the disposal of some offerings and ritual implements. The objects to be cremated were burned in a tlexictli, and then the ashes were buried at certain holy sites on the edge of bodies of water (Hough, PDF p.11). It’s a fascinating variation on the theme of water meets fire that pervades traditional Aztec thought, here manifesting in a team effort of the two opposing forces in destroying sanctified objects that are due to leave the physical world for the spiritual realm.

Staying on the subject of the tlexictli a moment longer, I’d like to call your attention to the photo on page 44 of the PDF, which shows one of the “fire navel” braziers. Around the narrow waist of the censer is a knotted bow. These bows frequently show up in Aztec art, either tied around objects that are being offered or tied around people, animals, or gods. Quetzalcoatl is often shown in the codices with these bows tied around his knees and elbows, such as in plate 56 of the Codex Borgia. Mictlantecuhtli is wearing the pleated paper bows around his joints as well. To my knowledge, we don’t yet fully understand the complex meaning behind these bows, but they’re definitely associated with priestly activity and sacrifice. In that light, it seems appropriate to see these bows appear on the tlexictli.

Moving on to more familiar territory, Hough’s paper covers the ladle-type censer commonly depicted in the hands of priests offering incense in the codices, as discussed in my earlier post on the subject of daily copal offerings by the clergy. In his scheme of classification, it is labeled as a type of “gesture”popochcomitl, so called because it’s intended to be held in the hand and used in various motions during ceremony to direct the sweet smoke towards its intended recipient(s). According to the author, this ladle-like shape is a signature of gesture censers among the Nahua peoples, and isn’t as prevalent among groups to the north and south of Central Mexico. This seems to be reflected in the surviving codices, as the majority of the examples I can recall offhand are that shape. I’ve seen a few examples of a bowl-shaped vessel with copal in it as well in the ancient books, which may match the small bowl-type censers he notes as being universal across Mesoamerica.

Gesture censers in varying shapes were used outside of temple activities, as Sahagun notes that the duty to offer copal was shared by everyone in the Aztec empire, which Hough comments on in the household context a bit. Sahagun also recorded that copal was offered before performances of song and dance at the houses of the nobles, which presumably involved small censers that could be manipulated with a hand in at least some cases. I mention that possibility because it’s a custom still widely in use today, as seen among the danza Azteca groups around the world, and one that I can show you as I wrap up today’s post.

The video below is a recording of a dance for Tonatiuh, the Sun, and the dancers have several goblet-shaped censers that they use to offer copal smoke to the four directions. Once the offering is finished, they place the censers back among the other objects of the dance altar spread out on the ground, letting the copal continue to burn and smoke as they dance. Thanks go to Omeyocanze for posting this lovely video.

*Apologies for not having the citations for Sahagun’s Florentine Codex in just yet, but it’s quite late and I must call it a night before getting up for work later. I’ll add them in when I get the chance soon.


Facts about the Mayan Culture

Although the Maya are well known for creating a multitude of art—sketches, wood carvings, stone works—they are perhaps best known for their pottery. Driven both by function and aesthetics, pottery became a ceramic canvas for the Maya to tell stories, venerate the gods, commemorate the deceased and much more. Here’s a quick tour of four pieces from four distinct periods of the Maya civilization. All are from the Mayan Art of the Americas permanent exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Next time you’re in New York, we highly recommend that you take a look at these. They’re all the more stunning in person.

The very early Maya used hollowed-out gourds as containers for liquids and food. With utility still in mind—they were light, portable, and sturdy— these gourds inspired the shape and size of the Maya’s first pottery creations. Clay was easily collected in riverbeds of the highland valleys and was strengthened with ash, sand or bits of rocks. The Maya created pots by winding long coils of clay into the desired shape and then smoothing the edges. The pieces were then fired in kilns built expressly for the setting of pottery.

Late Preclassic Period (250 BC – 250 AD)

During the Late Preclassic period, the design movement of adding appendages to these pots (also known as ceramic vessels) was developed. Pottery from this period featured increasingly intricate human and animal forms. This bowl, where utility and imagination merge, is an excellent example of the sophistication that had developed by the end of the Late Preclassic Period.

“A characteristic ceramic bowl was one made in the shape of a tropical bird, perhaps a cormorant, in the act of catching a fish in its beak. The bird’s forehead is marked with a disk, probably depicting a mirror. Details of the bird are rendered on the lid, where its head forms the knob and its wings spread out onto the expanse of the lid. The fish is rendered three-dimensionally, carefully held in the wide bird beak.” Image and Description via The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York

Early Classic Period (250 AD – 550 AD)

Attention to detail flourished in the Early Classic period, which lasted from about 250 AD to 550 AD, and ushered great creative expansion throughout the entire Yucatan and the Mayan world. The Temple of Inscriptions at Pelanque, in Chiapas, was built during this time, as well as the Governor’s Palace at Uxmal. Scenic mosaics of battles, rituals and ball games were emphasized in ceramics and incorporated into rituals and sacrificial ceremonies.

“This magnificent high-gloss blackware bowl is decorated with carved and incised feathered serpents. Profile human figures are seated in front of their bearded jaws. The bodies of the serpents undulate with regularity around the circumference of the vessel. The figures are perhaps emerging from the underworld as the bearded, feathered serpent is thought to be a personification of that fearsome place. A bowl carved with serpents and human forms likely a scene of the underworld” Inscribed with dots signifying 539 AD. Image & description via The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York

By the fourth century, a number of unique pigments had been refined and were being incorporated during the firing process to add color and depth. The classic Maya blue, for example, was used frequently during the Mayan Classic period around 550 AD. Remnants of the color pigments can be seen in the “Censer with Seated Figure” below, which is estimated to be 5th- 6th Century.

“The smoke from burning incense, accompanied every major ceremony in the Maya realm. Depicted on the censer illustrated here is a seated figure, perhaps a ruler, surrounded by aspects of mythological creatures that are stacked about his head and symmetrically flank his sides. The central figure is in higher relief, sitting cross-legged with arms carefully positioned in front of his chest. The position of the hands, held inward and touching, is known from sculpted stone monuments, where it carries connotations of rulership.” Censer with Seated Figure. Image and description via The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York

Late Classic Period (700 AD – 850 AD)

By the Late Classic period (700 AD to 850 AD) and the Terminal Classic period (after 850 AD) salt plumbate was used regularly in plates and bowls the bright orange and deep red hued pottery now associated with the Yucatan had become the default colors used by the Maya as seen in the funerary vessel below, likely from the 8th century, depicting a young lord.

Maya polychrome ceramic vessel. “A palace court scene is depicted on the exterior of this cylindrical vessel. An elegant young lord, seated on a throne, wears a grand feathered headdress and a large collar of beads and pendants. Two seated male figures of lesser rank face him, and between them is a vessel shaped much like the one on which they are depicted. It is filled with a foaming liquid probably made of honey or cacao. The depiction of the luxurious life of a wealthy and powerful young man is overlaid with references to death. The vessel is undoubtedly a mortuary offering.” Image and description via The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Today, the tradition of Maya pottery still thrives. Many pieces have lasted the test of time and can still be viewed and studied. Mérida’s Yucatan Museum of Anthropology maintains a charming collection of ceramics. In Ticul, about an hour from Petac, pottery remains at the financial and cultural heart of the town. Once known for the production of clay water storage tanks, the pottery industry of Ticul has adapted to be one much more about artistry. From clay masks of Mayan gods and mosaics depicting Xibalaba, the underworld, to commemorative altars and elegant pots and plates, local artisans are thriving and continue to by selling their work in nearby Mérida.


Here Be Monsters: Kimbell Purchases Two Mayan Ceramics

They’re like highly-detailed totem poles made of heads of jaguars and reptile-gods. The two stands held the ceremonial bowl where the copal incense was burned – in Chiapas around 700 A. D. These babies are rare in the U.S.


Two rare, ritual Mayan censer stands are moving to the Kimbell, which announced their purchase today. Standing nearly four feet tall, these stands held the ceremonial brazier-bowels where the copal incense was burned. Both come from Chiapas, Mexico, and have been dated to around 690-720 A.D. There are few of these in the U.S. and they’ll go on view at the Kimbell April 21.

The bowls were pretty plain (and often missing, as here), but the totem-pole-like stands, as is clear from these images, were richly embellished — in this case, a jaguar head (lower, left), symbolizing the god of the underworld, and a supernatural reptile with a Kan cross in the mouth above him (bottom, right). The human head with the open mouth may be a deity.

Both censer stands more or less represent the World Tree, which held the earth in its roots and supported the heavens. Personally, I’m trying to figure out exactly which one of these faces is the Mayan Jester God.

KIMBELL ART MUSEUM ACQUIRES TWO MONUMENTAL MAYA CERAMIC SCULPTURES

FORT WORTH, TX—The Kimbell Art Museum announced today the acquisition of two rare Maya Palenque-­‐style ceramic censer stands. Typical of the Maya late Classic period (A.D. 600–900) and dated to about A.D. 690–720, Censer Stand with the Head of the Jaguar God of the Underworld and Censer Stand with the Head of a Supernatural Being with a Kan Cross will be on view in the Museum’s north galleries on Sunday, April 21st.

Palenque-­‐style ceramic censer stands (incensarios) are among the largest and most sophisticated freestanding sculptures created by Maya artists. There are very few in either public or private collections in the U.S. Measuring nearly four feet tall, the Kimbell censer stands are exceptional for their remarkable condition and superb quality of execution.

“The sculptures’ monumental scale and wealth of symbolic detail command the viewer’s attention,” commented Eric M. Lee, director of the Kimbell Art Museum. “I foresee these works quickly becoming hallmarks of our already choice collection of Maya art.” Since their documented importation into the U.S. from Mexico on August 6, 1968, the two censers have been in private collections in Europe and the U.S. From 1985 to 1999, they were on view in the galleries of the Detroit Institute of Arts, as a long-­‐term loan.

The sophistication and craftsmanship demonstrated in these stands are indicative of Palenque, a major Maya city-­‐state located in current-­‐day Chiapas, Mexico, that flourished in the seventh century. Ceramic censers were an important component of ritual paraphernalia and ceremonial life at Palenque. Censers were used both to represent and venerate divine beings, primarily the deities of the Palenque Triad. Censers were in two parts: a stand with a tubular body that served as a support and a brazier-­‐bowl that was placed on top and used for burning copal incense. While the functional brazier was undecorated (and is now often missing, as is the case with both Kimbell acquisitions), the stands were elaborately embellished with a wide variety of iconographic elements. The thematic arrangement depicted on these two censer stands is referred to as the “totem-­‐pole” style and is characterized by a vertical tier of heads modeled in deep relief on the front of the cylinder. The side flanges are decorated with motifs of crossed bands, serpent-­‐wing panels, foliation, knotted bands, stylized ear ornaments and pendant ribbons applied in low relief. Traces of the original blue, red and white pigments are still present on the surface. Though not necessarily conceived as a pair, both censers were undoubtedly made by the same highly skilled court artist.

For the Maya, the center of the universe was the Axis Mundi, or World Tree, which had roots that grew from the depths of the sea under the earth and branches that rose to support the heavens. Symbolically, the tubular censer bodies formed cosmic trees, which were believed to be the vehicles that transported deities through the cosmos during ritual acts. The principal head most often featured on the censers is the Jaguar God of the Underworld (GIII), who represents the sun god making his nightly journey through the Underworld from dusk to dawn.

Censer Stand with the Head of the Jaguar God of the Underworld

The lowest head is a version of the Maize God, with attached leaves containing corn kernels. Above the Maize God’s head is the principal head of the Jaguar God of the Underworld (also known as Ahau K’in, the sun god), who represents the sun at night during its underworld journey from dusk to dawn. The Jaguar God head is capped by Itzamye, the serpent-­‐bird that, according to Maya mythology, was killed in the branches of the World Tree just prior to the creation of the present world. Artistically, the shift from the Jaguar God of the Underworld to Itzamye symbolizes the surface of the earth and the interface between the Underworld and the celestial realm. In the headdress of Itzamye is a small figure that may be a version of the Jester God, a signifier of rulership. Above Itzamye is an unrecognizable head, which is capped by Itzamna, the paramount sky god of the Maya, who resided at the top of the heavens. A small jaguar is perched in his headdress.

Censer Stand with the Head of a Supernatural Being with a Kan Cross

The lowest head is an unidentified reptilian, surmounted by a head that may be a human in the guise of a deity, probably the Jaguar God of the Underworld. This head has an open mouth with a cut-­‐off jaw. The inside of the mouth is marked with a Kan Cross (X) and resembles the entrance of a temple. As in the Jaguar God censer, this principal head is topped by Itzamye, the serpent-­‐bird, indicating a symbolic shift to the branches of the World Tree (Axis Mundi) in the celestial realm. The two upper reptilian heads are versions of the Jester God, who resided in the upper heavens. The side flanges of both censers are decorated with a variety of motifs that include (from top to bottom) jewels with bird-­‐shaped heads and ribbons, stylized crocodile ears, crossed and knotted bands and ornamented ear spools.

The Kimbell Art Museum, owned and operated by the Kimbell Art Foundation, is internationally renowned for both its collections and for its architecture. The Kimbell’s collections range in period from antiquity to the 20th century and include European masterpieces by artists such as Fra Angelico, Michelangelo, Caravaggio, Poussin, Velázquez, Monet, Picasso and Matisse important collections of Egyptian and classical antiquities and Asian, Mesoamerican and African


Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures

Introduction: The American continent is very rich in psychoactive plants and fungi, and many pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures used them for magical, therapeutic and religious purposes.

Objectives: The archaeological, ethno-historical and ethnographic evidence of the use of hallucinogenic substances in Mesoamerica is reviewed.

Results: Hallucinogenic cactus, plants and mushrooms were used to induce altered states of consciousness in healing rituals and religious ceremonies. The Maya drank balché (a mixture of honey and extracts of Lonchocarpus) in group ceremonies to achieve intoxication. Ritual enemas and other psychoactive substances were also used to induce states of trance. Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec used peyote, hallucinogenic mushrooms (teonanacatl: Psilocybe spp) and the seeds of ololiuhqui (Turbina corymbosa), that contain mescaline, psilocybin and lysergic acid amide, respectively. The skin of the toad Bufo spp contains bufotoxins with hallucinogenic properties, and was used since the Olmec period. Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), wild tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), water lily (Nymphaea ampla) and Salvia divinorum were used for their psychoactive effects. Mushroom stones dating from 3000 BC have been found in ritual contexts in Mesoamerica. Archaeological evidence of peyote use dates back to over 5000 years. Several chroniclers, mainly Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, described their effects in the sixteenth century.

Conclusions: The use of psychoactive substances was common in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican societies. Today, local shamans and healers still use them in ritual ceremonies in Mesoamerica.

Keywords: Alucinógenos Culturas precolombinas Hallucinogenic fungi Hallucinogens Hongos Peyote Pre-Columbian cultures Psilocybe spp. Turbina corymbosa.

Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.


Maya Today

Descendants of the ancient Maya abound throughout southern Mesoamerica . The population is estimated at eight million, likely as many as there were at the time of conquest. Some live by very traditional means, others have integrated into urban life, yet all, in some way or another, have adapted to modern lifestyles of the 21st century.

The importance of Maya culture is attracting more and more attention. The Mayan language is now being taught in schools and modern science is recognizing the value of traditional medicinal plants for their healing power and their potential in finding cures for diseases like cancer, diabetes, and AIDS.

The modern Maya and researchers are working to overcome centuries of cultural suppression . Today, the Maya forest stands as an enduring monument to the resourcefulness of the Maya and the continuation of their invaluable cultural heritage.

Check out Macduff Everton's new photo narrative of the Modern Maya

Want to learn more about the Maya? Check out some of these resources !

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Censer, Maya Culture - History

The very first traces of Mayan civilization date back to around 1,800 BC in northern Guatemala. Most archaeologists agree that the Mayan civilization is the jewel of all ancient American cultures, and one of the greatest civilizations the world has ever known. The Mayans were the only ancient American civilization with a recorded history of their own, and in fact they broadcasted their language on stone billboards (stelas), the loudest messages of all Mesoamerican cultures. They recorded on lithic monuments, pottery, papers, and skins, the notable events of their intricate culture.

The ancient Maya considered flat foreheads and crossed eyes beautiful. To achieve these effects, children would have boards bound tight to their heads and wax beads tied to dangle before their eyes. Both men and women made cuts in their skin to gain much-desired scar markings, and the elites sharpened their teeth to points, and made incrustations with Jade and Pyrite, another mark of wealth and beauty.

Maya society was broken into a class structure with four main levels: the nobility (Almehenob'), the priesthood (Ah'kinob'), the common people (Ah'chembal uinieol'), and the slaves (Pencat'ob') At the top were the nobles with the King being the most powerful. The King's power was hereditary which means that the oldest son would become the King when he died. The next most powerful were the priests who helped the king and also lead religious ceremonies. The next level of people were the commoners. Most people were in this category and were farmers. The bottom of the system was the slaves. Slaves were caught during wars or if people broke a law like stealing they would become a slave.

The question that has fascinated scholars and the public, since 19th-century explorers began discovering "lost cities" was “ How could one of the ancient world's great civilizations simply dissolve? ” Early speculation centered on sudden catastrophe, perhaps volcanism or an earthquake or a deadly hurricane. Or perhaps it was a mysterious disease, untraceable today—something like the Black Death in medieval Europe or the smallpox that wiped out Native American populations at the dawn of the colonial age. Modern researchers have discarded these one-event theories, however, because the collapse extended over at least 200 years. Scholars have looked instead at combinations of afflictions in d ifferent parts of the Mayan world, including overpopulation, warfare , environmental damage, drought, and famine. It seems as if anything that could have possibly gone wrong, it did.


Censer fragmentation and life history: rural domestic settlement enchainment and accumulation activities and the Classic-Postclassic transition of the Petén Lakes region, Guatemala.

Fragmentation theory is premised on the notion that actors purposefully broke valued goods, deposited fragments of them in meaningful places, and enchained other social beings in relationships with gifts and exchange of them. They also accumulated whole objects in caches. This presentation examines the fragmentation premise for censers and non-slipped utilitarian ceramics in and around architectural spaces at the Quexil Islands, Guatemala. The site is a Terminal Classic-Late Postclassic Maya settlement in the Petén Department. The Classic-Postclassic transition features a transformation in architecture and social use of space in rural settlements and the use, taphonomy and life histories of these ceramics appear to shift as well. Whereas in the Late Classic period, the rural Maya were part of hierarchical society and their use of architecture and ceramic media reflected that hierarchy, in the Postclassic period there emerged a different pattern. Small, seemingly rural settlements, such as the Quexil Islands, had the ability to conduct censer ritual in the Postclassic. An epicentral ceremonial architectural pattern has substantial censer deposits, while a peripheral pattern of small censer fragments and other non-slipped ceramics predominates in residential contexts. The presentation concludes by considering evidence of up-network and down-network enchainment and accumulation activities.

SAA 2015 abstracts made available in tDAR courtesy of the Society for American Archaeology and Center for Digital Antiquity Collaborative Program to improve digital data in archaeology. If you are the author of this presentation you may upload your paper, poster, presentation, or associated data (up to 3 files/30MB) for free. Please visit http://www.tdar.org/SAA2015 for instructions and more information.


Bringing Maya History to Life

Из сервиса Google Искусство и культура

Alfred Percival Maudslay is the greatest British Explorer that no-one has ever heard of. Maudslay did all the things that Victorian era explorers should do ― like hacking through mosquito infested jungles and stumbling across amazing ancient cities in Mexico and Central America ― but that isn’t what made him great. He deserves that accolade for a far more visionary and humble achievement his ability to harness the power of new technology to capture and communicate images of his discoveries.

Unlike many Victorian era explorers, he wasn’t interested in collecting objects that he found during his journeys, instead he was interested in recording them in their context. Maudslay was obsessed with the captured image and how he could use this to help preserve and share his love of ancient Maya culture and heritage.

Using the most cutting-edge technology of his time in the late 19th Century, predating the film and digital photography eras, Maudslay developed beautiful glass plate photographs and created enormous plaster casts of entire ancient Maya monuments. To transport this technology to the jungles of Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras was no small undertaking. Tons of plaster of Paris, hundreds of hand made, large glass plates, and dozens of barrels of chemicals were shipped from Liverpool on paddle steamers before being loaded onto mule trains to set off hundreds of miles across mountains and rivers into Central America.

Maudslay was also honest about the truth behind most Victorian era explorers: that they were nearly always clueless white European men without any idea of where they were going or how to survive when they got there. From the very beginning, Maudslay openly acknowledged his own inadequacies and established a lasting relationship with lifelong collaborator Gorgonio López, from Coban, Guatemala, as well as with local communities that he worked with throughout his life. These communities are recorded in his photographs, living and working among the stunning ancient Maya cities and landscapes they lived within.

These relationships were not only the subject of his images, they were also his source of knowledge and he used new technology to tell their stories to the world. His photographs allowed European audiences to see how the indigenous peoples of Central America had built some of the greatest cities the world has ever seen, centuries before Europeans ever arrived. These stunning sites, such as Chichen Itza, Yaxchilan, and Tikal, had been home to hundreds of thousands of people for millennia. These ancient Maya cities are also found in totally different environments, from lush subtropical forests to dry coastal plateaus. The extraordinary innovation and technological invention necessary to thrive within these diverse environments remains an inspiration to any visitor, as are the rich cultural traditions of the six million indigenous Maya living throughout the region today.


Watch the video: The Decipherment of Maya Script (June 2022).