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In 1883 Joseph Pulitzer purchased New York World for $346,000. The newspaper was turned into a journal that concentrated on investigative reporting, human-interest stories, scandal and sensational material. Pulitzer also promised to use the paper to "expose all fraud and sham, fight all public evils and abuses, and to battle for the people with earnest sincerity".
In 1895 William Randolph Hearst purchased the the New York Journal, and using the similar approach adopted by Joseph Pulitzer, began to compete with the New York World. Pulitzer responded by producing a colour supplement.
The colour supplement included the Yellow Kid, a new cartoon character drawn by Richard F. Outcault. This cartoon became so popular that William Randolph Hearst, owner of the New York Journal, offered him a considerable amount of money to join his newspaper. Hearst also reduced the price of the journal to one cent and including colour magazine sections. As a result of the importance of Outcault's Yellow Kid character in these events, this circulation war between the two newspapers became known as yellow journalism. He also persuaded Frederick Opper, another of Pulitzer's cartoonists, to join the New York Journal.
The tactics used by the New York Journal and the New York World increased circulation and influenced the content and style of newspapers in most of the USA's major cities. Many aspects of yellow journalism, such as banner headlines, sensational stories, an emphasis on illustrations, and coloured supplements, became a permanent feature of popular newspapers in the United States and Europe during the 20th century.
For over 150 years, we have been creating publications designed to help amateur and professionals research New York families.
Our publications provide crucial guidance and advice for researchers, and also preserve essential genealogical work and historical records. We currently publish two quarterlies and have also authored a number of comprehensive research guides on the most important subjects in New York state genealogy research - several more are forthcoming.
Read below for an overview of each publication and visit the publication's specific web page to learn more about each.
New York State Historical Association & Research Library
The New York State Historical Association was founded in 1899 by New Yorkers who were interested in promoting greater knowledge of the early history of the state. They hoped to encourage original research, to educate general audiences by means of lectures and publications, to mark places of historic interest with tablets or signs, and to start a library and museum to hold manuscripts, paintings, and objects associated with the history of the state.
Today, the collections and programs continued to expand and a separate library building was constructed in 1968. In 1995 a new 18,000 square foot wing was added to Fenimore House to house the Eugene and Clare Thaw Collection which is one of the nation's premier collections of American Indian Art. In 1999 in recognition of our world class collections we changed the name Fenimore House Museum to Fenimore Art Museum.
We hope you enjoyed this essay.
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A Brief History of New York Impeachments
New York governor Andrew Cuomo was a media hero for most of 2020 for his handling of the Covid-19 pandemic. Now he’s in deep political trouble after suppressing information on nursing-home deaths and being accused of sexual harassment by several women, one of whom accused him of possible criminal assault. Prominent Democrats, including 59 state legislators, Mayor Bill de Blasio, several congressmen, and both of the state’s U.S. senators, have called on Cuomo to resign. The Democratic speaker of the New York state assembly has authorized the assembly’s Judiciary Committee to begin an investigation, the first step to formally impeaching the governor. So far, Cuomo has flatly refused to resign, denying guilt and asking for people to withhold judgment until the facts have been established. That stance makes impeachment more likely every day. So it’s a good time to review how some earlier governors of New York have been removed from office before the end of their terms.
In fact, removal has only happened twice—the first in colonial times. After the Glorious Revolution in England in 1688 forced King James II to flee to France, Jacob Leisler, a prosperous fur merchant and landowner, seized control of New York City and then the province of New York, supposedly in the name of new monarchs William and Mary. When the new governor that William and Mary had appointed finally showed up in 1691, Leisler resigned but was promptly arrested, tried for treason, and hanged.
The second, and more relevant, occasion occurred in 1913, when newly elected governor William Sulzer was impeached and removed from office after a governorship of only ten months. His demise came at the behest of Tammany Hall, the Democratic political machine that dominated city and sometimes state politics for decades.
Sulzer got his start from Tammany, notwithstanding its eventual role in his downfall. Born in New Jersey in 1863, he worked as a cabin boy aboard a brig and a grocery clerk before taking classes at New York’s Cooper Union and Columbia Law School. After reading law at a local firm, he was admitted to the bar in 1884 and, that same year, began working for Tammany Hall as a stump speaker for various campaigns on the city’s East Side. Thanks to Tammany and its grand sachem, Richard Croker, Sulzer was elected to the New York state assembly in 1890. He served for five one-year terms, the last two as speaker of the assembly, a powerful position in New York politics. He was careful to do Boss Croker’s bidding: as Sulzer himself explained, “all legislation came from Tammany Hall and was dictated by that great statesman, Richard Croker.”
As Sulzer’s political career advanced, his loyalty to Tammany waned. In 1894, he was elected to Congress, where he would serve for 18 years, the last two as chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. In Congress, he supported progressive policies, such as an income tax, the creation of the Department of Labor, the eight-hour work day, and the direct election of senators. Sulzer announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for governor in 1896 but did not get backing from Tammany. He ran again in 1898 (the governorship had a two-year term until 1938), and this time Croker actively opposed him. Sulzer kept trying for the nomination, though. By 1912, when Democrat and Tammany loyalist John A. Dix was governor and wanted another term, reform Democrats such as Franklin D. Roosevelt, then a state senator, opposed him as a Tammany man. Sulzer was acceptable to both factions of the party and, with the Republicans split by Theodore Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Progressive Party, easily won the November election.
Once in office, Sulzer immediately sided with reformers. He cut Tammany Hall off from patronage, the source of its power, and called for open primary elections—anathema to political machines—while opening investigations into corruption in the legislature and the executive branch.
Tammany Hall retaliated, as political machines do. The majority leader of the state senate, Robert F. Wagner, refused to confirm Sulzer’s appointments. The state comptroller, another Tammany man, froze payrolls to prevent Sulzer’s projects from advancing. A joint commission to investigate corruption, led by state senator and Tammany loyalist James F. Frawley, claimed that Sulzer had been misusing campaign funds and had committed perjury. Two days after the commission announced those findings, the assembly—led by still another Tammany man, speaker Al Smith—voted to impeach the governor.
By this point, Sulzer had lost his political support. Reform-minded progressive Democrats still backed him, but there were too few in Albany to save his job. The trial began in September 1913. A month later, Sulzer was convicted on three counts by a vote of 43–12. While he had lost support among the political class, the governor still had much popular support: it was reported that 10,000 people came to the executive mansion to see him leave Albany. Sulzer won election to the assembly that November as a candidate of the Progressive Party, but never won office again despite several attempts on third-party tickets. He returned to the practice of law. There have been several attempts to clear his political record, but none has succeeded.
New York impeachments are not quite like federal ones. As with the House of Representatives, the New York assembly has the sole power of impeachment, with a majority vote needed for a successful one. But the subsequent trial is held not in the state senate but in the Court for the Trial of Impeachments, whose membership consists of the members of the state senate, the lieutenant governor, and the chief judge and associate judges of the Court of Appeals, the state’s highest court. (The New York Supreme Court, despite its name, is only the court of first instance for serious cases.) A two-thirds vote is required for conviction. If the governor is on trial, then the lieutenant governor and the president pro tempore of the Senate, both in the line of succession to the governorship, are excluded from the court.
Impeachments have been rare in New York’s history. Only three officials were impeached in the nineteenth century, and two were acquitted. None have been impeached since Sulzer, the only New York governor impeached since the American Founding. Whatever Andrew Cuomo’s ultimate fate, he is in uncharted political waters.
John Steele Gordon specializes in business and financial history and is the author of books including Hamilton’s Blessing: The Extraordinary Life and Times of Our National Debt.
New York Journal - History
Introduction / History / Database / Gallery / Research
After his tremendously successful revival of the San Francisco Examiner, William Randolph Hearst bought the New York Morning Journal in 1895, and in the following year he founded the companion New York Evening Journal. After its establishment, the New York Morning Journal entered into a circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World-Telegram, offering readers copious illustrations, color magazine sections, glaring headlines, and a reduced sales price of one cent. The newspaper became known for its sensationalism, geared to appeal to readers' emotions rather than to their intellects. Its rich early history includes a famous episode wherein its false and exaggerated reporting helped to incite the Spanish-American War of 1898. As Hearst is reported to have cabled his illustrator in Cuba: "You furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war."
Years later the Morning Journal changed its name to the New York American and then merged with the Evening Journal in 1937 to become the New York Journal-American, the flagship publication of the Hearst family publishing empire. The newspaper ceased publication in 1966, and the Hearst Corporation donated the photographic morgue to The University of Texas at Austin in 1968.
The photographic morgue consists of approximately two million prints and one million negatives created for publication in the New York Journal-American newspaper. The bulk of the material covers the years from 1937 to the paper's demise in 1966. Earlier decades are represented in the collection, but with decreasing frequency toward the beginning of the twentieth century. Roughly half of the prints are images taken by Journal-American staff. The backs of these prints usually bear the stamped date of publication and a pasted-down clipping from the newspaper. The majority of the other prints come from wire services such as the Associated Press, United Press International, and other syndication entities, while a small portion of the prints are publicity photos from sources such as airlines, public relations firms, movie studios, etc. Many of the prints in the morgue show crop marks and/or heavy retouching with pencil, ink, dyes, or airbrush paints as evidence of their use in publication.
Until now, access to the photo morgue collection has been limited, resulting from its uncataloged status. In keeping with the Ransom Center's mission to advance the study of the arts and humanities by preserving and making accessible creations of our cultural heritage through the highest standards of cataloging, conservation, and collection management, the Center has now constructed this website as a portal to the prints in the New York Journal-American photo morgue. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the collection and its imagery and to provide a searchable database of more than 64,000 folder titles by which the prints were organized by the newspaper staff.
This website has been constructed in association with a generous three-year grant from the Scholarly Communications Program of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to gain intellectual control over and provide access to the approximately two million prints in the New York Journal-American newspaper photo morgue, to survey the physical condition of the materials, and to improve basic preservation housing.
This website portal was produced by the staff of the Harry Ransom Center, including:
David Coleman, Curator of Photography
Roy Flukinger, Senior Research Curator of Photography
Mary Alice Harper, Photographic Archivist
Christopher Jahnke, Technology Librarian
Daniel Zmud, Webmaster
The NYJA morgue came to the Briscoe Center with no inventory or index. For several years, we worked on completing rudimentary, handwritten checklists of the materials within the cabinets.
The New York Journal American Morgue (ca. 1900 &ndash ca. 1966)
The New York Journal American morgue of approximately 9 million clippings was transferred to the Briscoe Center for American History by the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, which received the morgue in 1967. The HRC Photograph Division still retains the NYJA photographs morgue.
The NYJA clippings morgue is divided into biographical, subject and geographical categories. The clippings are not only from Hearst&rsquos own publications in their various daily editions, but also from competitors and even some magazines.
* Morgue files are stored off site and must be requested several days to a week before you would like to view them. You may request up to seven files per day.
Morgue Copyright Contact Information
The New York Journal American Morgue
The Hearst Corporation
959 8th Avenue
New York, NY 10019
New York World
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
New York World, daily newspaper published in New York City from 1860 to 1931, a colourful and vocal influence in American journalism in its various manifestations under different owners.
The World was established in 1860 as a penny paper with a basically religious orientation. It supported President Abraham Lincoln’s prosecution of the American Civil War and his other policies, but it lost money, was sold to a consortium of New York City Democrats, and abruptly turned on Lincoln after the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. The paper was shut down by federal authorities for two days in 1864 for publishing a fabricated report indicating that the North would draft 400,000 more men for the Union armies. In 1868 the paper published a statistical and historical annual, the World Almanac. Its publication continues to this day.
The World is most closely associated with publisher Joseph Pulitzer, who purchased the newspaper in 1883. Its coverage became increasingly flamboyant—particularly its Sunday edition under the editorship of Arthur Brisbane. When William Randolph Hearst bought the competing New York Journal in 1895, he lured Pulitzer’s celebrated Sunday newspaper staff to the Journal with the promise of raises all but one secretary accepted Hearst’s offer. Pulitzer lured them back to the World with raises of his own, but then Hearst made a counteroffer, causing many to return to the Journal. (It was said that the sidewalk between the two newspapers was growing thin.) Rivalry between the two newspapers—especially when both published cartoons based on the “Yellow Kid” character in Richard Felton Outcault’s comics—gave rise to the term yellow journalism. It was an era marked by publicity stunts, screaming headlines, and sensationalism as the newspapers competed for readers, staff, advertisers, and public attention. The World played a major role in whipping up the jingoistic spirit that led the United States into the Spanish-American War.
The World was known for its numerous outstanding reporters, columnists, editors, and cartoonists. By 1930 the paper’s circulation had declined after a price increase, and heavy losses induced Pulitzer’s son, Joseph Pulitzer II, to sell the paper to the Scripps-Howard chain. In 1931 the World was combined with the New York Evening Telegram (founded 1867) to become the New York World-Telegram. The latter lasted until 1966 another merger creation, the New York World-Journal-Tribune, lasted less than a year, closing in 1967.
Jefferson County NY Newspapers and Obituaries
NOTE: Additional records that apply to Jefferson County are also on the New York Newspapers and Obituaries page.
Jefferson County Newspapers and Obituaries
Deaths in Jefferson, Lewis, and St Lawrence Counties (from Northern Journal) Northern New York Genealogy
Adams Newspapers and Obituaries
Adams NY Herald 1876 -1877 1876-1877 Fulton History
Adams NY Jefferson County Journal 1872-1922 Fulton History
South Jeff Journal 08/27/2014 to 06/06/2019 Genealogy Bank
Alexandria Bay Newspapers and Obituaries
Alexandra Bay NY Thousand Island Sun 1906-1978 Fulton History
Black River Newspapers and Obituaries
Cape Vincent Newspapers and Obituaries
Cape Vincent eagle. Cape Vincent, N.Y. 1872-05-02 to 1879-05-01 NYS Historic Newspapers
Cape Vincent eagle. Cape Vincent, N.Y. 1886-09-23 to 1951-09-06 NYS Historic Newspapers
Frontier patriot. Cape Vincent, N.Y. 1862-05-17 to 1862-10-25 NYS Historic Newspapers
Northern New York Historical Newspapers, includes Cape Vincent Eagle, 1872-1951 Northern New York Library Network
The Cape-Vincent gazette. Cape Vincent, N.Y. 1858-05-15 to 1861-09-14 NYS Historic Newspapers
The Democratic eagle. Cape Vincent, N.Y. 1882-02-02 to 1885-10-15 NYS Historic Newspapers
Carthage Newspapers and Obituaries
Carthage NY Republican 1885-1906 Fulton History
Carthage Republican Tribune 04/28/2010 to 06/13/2019 Genealogy Bank
On the St. Lawrence. Carthage, N.Y. 1943-08-26 to 1953-02-27 NYS Historic Newspapers
Clayton Newspapers and Obituaries
Clayton NY Independent 1872-1882 Fulton History
Clayton NY On The St. Lawrence 1890-1891 Fulton History
Clayton independent. Clayton, N.Y. 1872-12-12 to 1882-04-05 NYS Historic Newspapers
Clayton news. Clayton, N.Y. 1941-05-23 to 1941-10-01 NYS Historic Newspapers
Daily on the St. Lawrence. Clayton, N.Y. 1891-07-11 to 1893-09-01 NYS Historic Newspapers
On the St. Lawrence and Clayton independent. Clayton, N.Y. 1887-11-07 to 1938-08-18 NYS Historic Newspapers
Thousand Island Park Newspapers and Obituaries
Watertown Newspapers and Obituaries
Jefferson Chronicle. Watertown, N.Y. 1989-11-15 to 1992-05-06 NYS Historic Newspapers
New York Reformer 09/05/1850 to 04/18/1861 Genealogy Bank
New-York Daily Reformer 04/22/1861 to 12/31/1869 Genealogy Bank
Northern New York Historical Newspapers, includes Watertown Herald, 1886-1918 Northern New York Library Network
Northern New York Historical Newspapers, includes Watertown Re-Union, 1866-1918 Northern New York Library Network
Northern New York journal. Watertown, N.Y. 1849-06-27 to 1866-09-25 NYS Historic Newspapers
Northern New York weekly journal. Watertown, N.Y. 1866-10-16 to 1868-01-09 NYS Historic Newspapers
Northern state journal. Watertown, N.Y. 1846-08-26 to 1849-04-25 NYS Historic Newspapers
Spirit of '76 08/15/1834 to 10/27/1834 Genealogy Bank
The Cannon. Watertown, N.Y. 1992-10-01 to 2014-12-01 NYS Historic Newspapers
The Cannoneer. Watertown, N.Y. 1964-12-04 to 1966-10-07 NYS Historic Newspapers
The New York reformer. Watertown, N.Y. 1850-09-05 to 1869-12-31 NYS Historic Newspapers
The Watertown herald. Watertown, N.Y. 1886-07-03 to 1918-10-26 NYS Historic Newspapers
The Word. Watertown, N.Y. 1966-11-01 to 1989-09-22 NYS Historic Newspapers
Watertown Daily Times 01/05/1870 to 12/30/1922 Genealogy Bank
Watertown Daily Times 01/20/1988 to Current Genealogy Bank
Watertown Daily Times. Watertown, N.Y. 1870-05-26 to 1889-12-31 NYS Historic Newspapers
Watertown Daily Times. Watertown, N.Y. 1894-10-20 to 1922-12-30 NYS Historic Newspapers
Watertown Daily Times: Blogs 12/20/2009 to 06/01/2017 Genealogy Bank
Watertown NY Daily Standard 1923-1928 Fulton History
Watertown New York Reformer 1850-1863 Fulton History
Watertown Times 1870-1922 Fulton History
Watertown re-union. Watertown, N.Y. 1866-07-19 to 1918-06-15 NYS Historic Newspapers
Watertown times. Watertown, N.Y. 1870-01-05 to 1894-10-19 NYS Historic Newspapers
Offline Newspapers for Jefferson County
According to the US Newspaper Directory, the following newspapers were printed in this county, so there may be paper or microfilm copies available. For more information on how to locate offline newspapers, see our article on Locating Offline Newspapers.
Adams: Adams Visitor. (Adams, N.Y.) 1865-1869
Adams: Censor. (Adams, Jefferson Co., N.Y.) 1828-1829
Adams: Jefferson County Democrat. (Adams, N.Y.) 1844-1855
Adams: Jefferson County Journal. (Adams, Jefferson County, N.Y.) 1870-Current
Adams: Jefferson County News. (Adams, N.Y.) 1855-1865
Alexandria Bay: Thousand Island Sun. (Alexandria Bay, N.Y.) 1901-1953
Alexandria Bay: Thousand Islands Sun and On the St. Lawrence. (Alexandria Bay, N.Y.) 1953-Current
Antwerp: Antwerp Gazette. (Antwerp, Jefferson Co., N.Y.) 1873-1925
Cape Vincent: Cape-Vincent Gazette. (Cape Vincent, N.Y.) 1858-1862
Carthage: Carthage Republican and the Northern New Yorker. (Carthage, N.Y.) 1876-1890
Carthage: Carthage Republican. (Carthage, N.Y.) 1860-1876
Carthage: Carthage Republican. (Carthage, N.Y.) 1890-1922
Carthage: Carthage Tribune. (Carthage, Jefferson County, N.Y.) 1887-1922
Carthage: Carthagenian. (Carthage [N.Y.]) 1839-1843
Carthage: Northern New Yorker. (Carthage, N.Y.) 1875-1876
Clayton: Clayton Independent. (Clayton, N.Y.) 1872-1884
Fort Drum: Fort Drum Sentinel. (Fort Drum, N.Y.) 1975-1980
Fort Drum: Fort Drum Sentinel. (Fort Drum, N.Y.) 1989-Current
Fort Drum: Sentinel. (Fort Drum, N.Y.) 1980-1989
Philadelphia: North Country Advance. (Philadelphia, N.Y.) 1912-1946
Philadelphia: Philadelphia Advance. (Philadelphia, Jeff. Co., N.Y.) 1904-1912
Philadelphia: Philadelphia Monitor. (Philadelphia, Jefferson County, N.Y.) 1883-1893
Sackets Harbor: Jefferson Farmer. (Sackets Harbor, N.Y.) 1852-1854
Sackets Harbor: Jefferson Republican. (Sacket's-Harbor, Jefferson County, N.Y.) 1821-1823
Sackets Harbor: Sacket's-Harbor Gazette & Advertiser. (Sacket's-Harbor, N.Y.) 1818-1820
Sackets Harbor: Sackets Harbor Journal. (Sackets Harbor, N.Y.) 1838-1851
Sackets Harbor: Sackets Harbor Observer. (Sackets Harbor, N.Y.) 1848-1852
Theresa: Theresa Gleaner. (Theresa, N.Y.) 1892-1946
Watertown: American Advocate. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1814-1817
Watertown: Democratic Union. (Watertown, Jefferson Co., N.Y.) 1846-1854
Watertown: Freeman's Advocate. (Watertown [N.Y.]) 1824-1828
Watertown: Hemisphere. (Watertown [N.Y.]) 1809-1810
Watertown: Independent Republican, and Anti-Masonic Recorder. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1828-1830
Watertown: Independent Republican. (Watertown [N.Y.]) 1819-1825
Watertown: Jefferson County Union. (Watertown, Jefferson Co., N.Y.) 1856-1865
Watertown: Jefferson Reporter. (Watertown, Jefferson County, N.Y.) 1831-1834
Watertown: Jeffersonian. (Watertown, Jefferson Co., N.Y.) 1837-1846
Watertown: New York Reformer. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1850-1867
Watertown: New York Sun. (New York City) 2002-Current
Watertown: New York Tablet. (New York) 1857-1882
Watertown: New-York Daily Reformer. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1861-1862
Watertown: New-York Daily Reformer. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1862-1869
Watertown: Northern Luminary. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1813-1814
Watertown: Northern New York Journal. (Watertown [N.Y.]) 1849-1866
Watertown: Northern State Journal. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1846-1849
Watertown: Watertown Censor. (Watertown, Jefferson Co., N.Y.) 1829-1830
Watertown: Watertown Daily Standard. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1894-1908
Watertown: Watertown Daily Times. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1870-1889
Watertown: Watertown Daily Times. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1894-Current
Watertown: Watertown Eagle. (Watertown, Jefferson Co., N.Y.) 1832-1835
Watertown: Watertown Freeman. (Watertown [N.Y.]) 1824-1833
Watertown: Watertown Morning Despatch. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1872-1882
Watertown: Watertown Post. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1870-1884
Watertown: Watertown Re-Union. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1866-1918
Watertown: Watertown Register and General Advertiser. ([Watertown, N.Y.]) 1830-1832
Watertown: Watertown Register. (Watertown, Jefferson County, N.Y.) 1832-1835
Watertown: Watertown Register. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1828-1830
Watertown: Watertown Standard. (Watertown, N.Y.) 1908-1929
How to Use This Site Video
New York Map
Jefferson County shown in red
Local newspapers recorded a variety of information about people in the area where the newspaper was published. Obituaries or death notices were often recorded a few days after a person's death. Marriages and births may also have been recorded in newspapers. Detailed obituaries were not common previous to the 1890s. Sometimes there wasn't a local newspaper printed in a particularly town, but people in that town may have been mentioned in a newspaper in a town or larger city nearby.
The New-York Historical Society's manuscript collections contain over 20,000 linear feet of archival materials, including family papers and organizational and business records. This.
The New-York Historical Society's rich collections that document the Civil War include recruiting posters for New York City regiments of volunteers stereographic views documenting the.
Six volumes of recipes, dated 1840-1874, accompanied by twenty-eight loose recipes (most undated), a letter to Eliza Duane from her cousin Kate, and a handwritten song to the tune of ".
The New-York Historical Society's ephemera collections, currently being digitized, include broadsides, posters, and dining menus, as well as hundreds of thousands of items of many.
The New-York Historical Society holds fifteen important manuscript collections relating to slavery in the United States and the Atlantic slave trade. With over 12,000 pages of text dating.
The New-York Historical Society Quarterly (1917-1980) is an outstanding resource for the study of nearly every aspect of New York and American history and material culture, especially as.
The extensive photograph collections at the New-York Historical Society are particularly strong in portraits and documentary images of New York-area buildings and street scenes from 1839 to.
The Subway Construction Photograph Collection, 1900-1950, includes over 72,500 photographs taken by various New York City transportation agencies during the construction of the New York City.
This collection contains digital images of historical documents from the New-York Historical Society's Library that preserve the words of hundreds of eyewitnesses to the American.
The New York Weekly Journal and the Arrest of John Peter Zenger
This is an image of the burning of John Peter Zenger's 'New York Weekly Journal' in Wall Street on November 6, 1734. To the right is the colonial City Hall (now Federal Hall) and, behind it, the Presbyterian Church. In the distance is Trinity Church.
On the first day of July in the year 1731, the uneventful administration of New York under its royal governor, John Montgomerie, ended in his death. According to custom, the senior councilor, Rip Van Dam, succeeded to the position of Governor until the arrival of a new appointee who was picked by the King. His name was William Cosby. Amid rumors of Cosby's maladministration at Minorca, the Governor was warmly greeted when he arrived at New York City Hall, thirteen months after the former governor's death.
Governor Cosby's first order of business was to demand that Rip Van Dam hand over half of the salary that he obtained while being Governor between the time that Cosby was appointed until his arrival in New York. Governor Cosby filed suit in 1732 and designated the provincial Supreme Court to hear his suit without a jury. The Supreme Court of three members voted two to one in favor of the Governor. Chief Justice Lewis Morris voted in favor of Van Dam and was later removed from the Supreme Court and replaced him with James DeLancey. The replacement fueled the opposition, known as the Popular Party, against Cosby's administration. The principal members of the Popular Party were Lewis Morris, James Alexander, William Smith, and Rip Van Dam.
During this time, the only newspaper in New York was 'The New York Gazette.' Its printer, William Bradford, supported Governor Cosby's position. If the Popular Party wanted to attack the Governor, they would need another newspaper to do so. The only other printer in New York was a poor German man named John Peter Zenger. Zenger was born in Germany in 1697 and arrived in New York in 1711 where he was apprenticed to William Bradford for eight years. John Peter Zenger was naturalized on July 6, 1723 and became a free man. After a short partnership in 1725 with William Bradford, Zenger started his own business on Smith Street.
After Governor Cosby removed Chief Justice Morris from the Supreme Court, the Popular Party was determined to expose Governor's true character to the people of New York. They did so by founding a newspaper and chose Zenger as their printer. The 'New York Weekly Journal' first appeared on November 5, 1733. James Alexander, William Smith, and Lewis Morris were the anonymous head contributors for articles of the Weekly Journal. They targeted Cosby and his conduct.
Governor Cosby tolerated the Journal until January 15, 1734, when Chief Justice DeLancey delivered a charge to the Grand Jury accusing the Journal of breaking the law of seditious libel in New York. The Grand Jury returned with no indictments. Then, on October 15, 1734, DeLancey delivered another charge to the Grand Jury concerning the Journal. He tried to convince the nineteen members of the Grand Jury that just by reading the articles, one could tell that they were libels. The Grand Jury returned no indictment again. On the sixth of November of the same year, Governor Cosby ordered a public burning of the newspaper and offered a reward of fifty pounds for the names of the Journal's authors. With no luck with the indictments, John Peter Zenger was arrested under a warrant of the Council for printing seditious libels in his Journal on November 17th. Zenger was placed in the City Jail located in the attic of New York City Hall